The protective role of probiotics in sepsis-induced rats
ULUSAL TRAVMA VE ACIL CERRAHI DERGISI-TURKISH JOURNAL OF TRAUMA & EMERGENCY SURGERY
Authors: Yilmaz, Mustafa; Erdem, Ali Onur
BACKGROUND: Probiotic ingestion is associated with an increase in intestinal flora of useful bacteria, which contributes to the known protective effects it has on the intestinal barrier and thereby reducing infection. The present study aims to investigate the protective effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus gg (LGG) as an important probiotic with gastrointestinal barrier strengthening effect in sepsis. METHODS: Our study was conducted in the Animal Experiments Laboratory after obtaining ethicalapproval to conduct this study. Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into threegroups and group 1 (control group n=8), group 2 (sepsis group, n=8), group 3 (sepsis + probiotic group, n=8) were planned as double-blind. LGG was used as a probiotic. For the sepsis model, E. coli (0111: B4) was injected intraperitoneally, and the rats were sacrificed 48 hours after treatment. Blood samples were collected from all animals before sacrification and sent to the biochemistry laboratory to evaluate oxidant and antioxidant parameters. RESULTS: CRP values of Group 1 were significantly lower than Group 2, and CRP values of Group 3 were significantly lower. While total thiol levels of Group 2 were significantly lower than Group 1, total thiol levels of Group 3 were significantly higher than Group 2. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups for eNOS, GPX, PON1 and MDA levels. CONCLUSION: Prophylactic use of probiotics, such as LGG to reduce bacterial translocation and strengthen the immune system, is an inexpensive and effective method of treatment, and we recommend the repetition of studies supported by prospective clinical trials.
Systemic inflammation moderates the association of prior concussion with hippocampal volume and episodic memory in high school and collegiate athletes
BRAIN BEHAVIOR AND IMMUNITY
Authors: Brett, Benjamin L.; Savitz, Jonathan; Nitta, Morgan; Espana, Lezlie; Teague, T. Kent; Nelson, Lindsay D.; McCrea, Michael A.; Meier, Timothy B.
Background: There is a need to determine why prior concussion has been associated with adverse outcomes in some retired and active athletes. We examined whether serum inflammatory markers moderate the associations of prior concussion with hippocampal volumes and neurobehavioral functioning in active high school and collegiate athletes. Methods: Athletes (N = 201) completed pre-season clinical testing and serum collection (C-reactive protein [CRP]; Interleukin-6 [IL]-6; IL-1 receptor antagonist [RA]) and in-season neuroimaging. Linear mixed-effects models examined associations of prior concussion with inflammatory markers, self-reported symptoms, neurocognitive function, and hippocampal volumes. Models examined whether inflammatory markers moderated associations of concussion history and hippocampal volume and/or clinical measures. Results: Concussion history was significantly associated with higher symptom severity, p = 0.012, but not hippocampal volume or inflammatory markers (ps > 0.05). A significant interaction of prior concussion and CRP was observed for hippocampal volume, p = 0.006. Follow-up analyses showed that at high levels of CRP, athletes with two or more prior concussions had smaller hippocampal volume compared to athletes without prior concussion, p = 0.008. There was a significant interaction between prior concussion and levels of IL-1RA on memory scores, p = 0.044, i.e., at low levels of IL-1RA, athletes with two or more concussions had worse memory performance than those without prior concussion (p = 0.014). Conclusion: Findings suggest that certain markers of systemic inflammation moderate the association between prior concussion and hippocampal volume and episodic memory performance. Current findings highlight potential markers for predicting at-risk individuals and identify therapeutic targets for mitigating the long-term adverse consequences of cumulative concussion.