Prevalence and factors associated with Trichomonas vaginalis infection in indigenous Brazilian women
Authors: Barbosa, Marcelo dos Santos; Andrade de Souza, Iara Beatriz; Schnaufer, Erica Cristina dos Santos; da Silva, Liliane Ferreira; Maymone Goncalves, Crhistinne Carvalho; Simionatto, Simone; Marchioro, Silvana Beutinger
There is a scarcity of studies on the prevalence ofTrichomonas vaginalis(TV) in indigenous populations of Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional study between January and December 2018, on indigenous women living nearby an urban center of the Midwest region of Brazil and determined the prevalence of TV. Factors associated with TV infection and a comparison of molecular and direct microscopy diagnoses were determined. 241 indigenous women aged above 18 years participated in the study. Cervical and vaginal brush samples were collected to diagnose TV through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Direct microscopy for detection of TV, and cellular changes was performed. A sociodemographic and behavioral questionnaire was applied at the beginning of the study. All the data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. The result obtained showed that 27.8% [95% CI: 22.2-33.9] were positive for TV on PCR, while 7.41% [95% CI: 4.1-11] showed positive on direct microscopy. Direct microcopy also found 21 (8.71%) and 8 (3.31%) women infected with Gardnerella vaginalisand Candida albicans, respectively. In addition, 10 women presented atypical squamous cells of unknown significance and 14 lesions suggestive of HPV. Single women, under the age of 30 and who do not use condoms, were found to have a greater chance of getting TV infection. The high prevalence TV found in this population is comparable to highly vulnerable populations, as prisoners, sex workers and women in regions with low socioeconomic levels, moreover, seems to be an underdiagnosis of this infection. Therefore, a routine test program, as well as a review of the diagnostic method used, is encouraged for proper management.
High-risk human papilloma virus was not detected in a Norwegian cohort of oral squamous cell carcinoma of the mobile tongue
CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL DENTAL RESEARCH
Authors: Soland, Tine M.; Bjerkli, Inger-Heidi; Georgsen, Jeanette B.; Schreurs, Olaf; Jebsen, Peter; Laurvik, Helene; Sapkota, Dipak
Objectives The presence of and the causative role of high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) is a subject of controversy in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The disagreement can be related to the misclassification of OSCC as oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and/or lack of standard detection methods. This study aimed to examine the presence of transcriptionally active high-risk HPV in a homogenous Norwegian cohort of primary and second primary OSCC of the mobile tongue (oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma-OTSCC). Methods Tissue microarrays containing formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded cores of 146 OTSCC from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue (n = 128 primary and n = 18 second primary) from a multicentric Norwegian cohort were examined for the presence of high-risk HPV by DNA- and RNA-in situ hybridization (ISH) assays and p16 immunohistochemistry. Results Transcriptionally active HPV (E6/E7 mRNA) was not identified in any of the OTSCC specimens. In parallel, no tumors were positive for HPV by DNA ISH. Although, 61 (42%) OTSCC demonstrated p16 positivity with varying staining intensity and subcellular localization, only two cases demonstrated strong and uniform p16-staining (both cytoplasmic and nuclear) in >70% of cancer cells. The absence of transcriptionally active high-risk HPV in this cohort of OTSCC indicates that high-risk HPV is an unlikely causative factor in the present material.