Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection and type distribution among Uyghur females in Xinjiang, northwest China
Authors: Yan, Xiaolong; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Mei; Hu, Xin; Li, Ke; Jing, Mingxia
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has a key role in the development of cervical cancer. The present study aimed to determine the HPV type distribution among females of Uyghur ethnicity in Xinjiang province, northwest China. A total of 12,165 individuals aged 30-79 years from 12 villages in Zepu County, Kashgar Prefecture, Xinjiang province were recruited for screening. Cervical and vaginal swabs from each subject were collected by gynecologists and tested for HPV DNA using Luminex xMAP technology. The results indicated that the overall HPV prevalence was 9.34% (1,136/12,165) in the present cohort; 7.41% (901/12,165) of the individuals were positive for high-risk type HPV (HR-HPV) and 1.64% (200/12,165) were positive for multiple types. Among the individuals who tested positive for HR-HPV types, the three most prevalent types were HPV16 (2.83%), HPV31 (0.99%) and HPV68 (0.88%). Subgroup analysis by age indicated that the highest frequency of HPV infections occurred in subjects aged >60 years. The most common genotype combinations in subjects with multiple types were HPV16 + HPV54, HPV16 + HPV31 and HPV16 + HPV68. The present study provided data on the prevalence and type distribution of HPV infections among Uyghur females in Xinjiang province, northwestern China, which will assist in the assessment of the potential cost-effectiveness of HPV screening and vaccination in this population. The data will also facilitate the determination of HPV68 and 54 strains that should be included in the multi-type vaccine and the establishment of a vaccination program that caters for the different age groups of the Uyghur population.
Oral human papillomavirus infection in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected MSM: the OHMAR prospective cohort study
SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS
Authors: Giuliani, Massimo; Rollo, Francesca; Vescio, Maria Fenicia; Pichi, Barbara; Latini, Alessandra; Benevolo, Maria; Pellini, Raul; Cristaudo, Antonio; Dona', Maria Gabriella
Objective We aimed to assess incidence and clearance of oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the respective risk factors in HIV-infected and uninfected men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods Oral rinse and gargles were collected semiannually from 244 MSM (103, 42.2% HIV-infected). HPV-DNA testing was performed with the Linear Array HPV Genotyping test. A Markov model was used for estimation of incidence, clearance and risk factor analysis. Results Incidence rates for any HPV were 21.2 and 15.0x1000 person-months in HIV-infected and uninfected MSM, respectively. The respective figures for high-risk HPVs were 10.7 and 6.5x1000 person-months. The clearance rate was 4-12 times higher than the respective incidence rate. HIV-infected MSM with >95 lifetime oral sex partners showed increased incidence of any HPV (adjusted HR, aHR: 8.46, 95% CI 1.89 to 37.92). Condomless oral sex appeared the strongest predictor for incident infection by high-risk HPVs in this group (aHR: 13.40, 95% CI 2.55 to 70.53). Those aged >46 years (aHR: 0.30, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.74) and those with nadir CD4+ T count of <200 cells/mm(3) (aHR: 0.14, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.75) displayed a significantly reduced clearance of any and high-risk HPVs, respectively. HIV-uninfected MSM aged >46 years had increased risk of acquiring any HPV (aHR: 3.70, 95% CI 1.30 to 10.52) and high-risk HPV (aHR: 5.33, 95% CI 1.06 to 26.68). Any HPV clearance declined in those with more than six recent oral sex partners (aHR: 0.18, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.65). Conclusions Acquisition of oral HPV infection in MSM seems to occur rarely, whereas clearance seems to be a frequent event. Oral HPV natural history in these at-risk subjects is differently influenced by age and sex behaviour, depending on HIV status.