A Distinct Human Papilloma Virus Epidemiological Profile of Korean-Chinese Women Living in Yanbian, China
EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF GYNAECOLOGICAL ONCOLOGY
Authors: Wu, Qunying; Kuk, Jin-Ho; Ryu, Young-Joon
Cervical cancer is a common in women worldwide. Human papilloma virus (HPV), which is known to be a direct cause of cervical cancer, differs in its infection rate and genotype by country, geography, race, genetic factors, and immune status. No previously reported studies have reported the HPV prevalence and genotype distributions of Korean-Chinese women living in China. This study examined the prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV among Korean-Chinese women to find similarities and differences compared to Han-Chinese women and Korean women. We also evaluated the effectiveness of a genotyping test compared with liquid-based cytology (LBC) as a screening test. We performed LBC and HPV genotyping tests on 2099 women living in the Yanbian region. The mean age of the 2099 subjects was 42.5 years (18-82). The largest ethnic groups were Han-Chinese (78%), Korean-Chinese (20.2%), Man-Chinese (0.8%), Jang-Chinese (0.04%), and Myo-Chinese (0.04%). Of the Korean-Chinese women, 34.4% tested positive for HPV; the most prevalent subtypes were 52, 58, 16, 53, and 33, which was clearly different from those of Han-Chinese women and other Koreans. The results of LBC showed a false negative rate of 62.4% compared with the results of HPV genotyping tests. This shows that a cervical cancer screening system utilizing HPV genotyping or a combined method is more effective. According to the HPV profile, only the Gardasil 9 vaccine can cover the HPV subtypes prevalent in Korean-Chinese women in the Yanbian region. This paper is the first report on HPV epidemiology among Korean-Chinese women in China.
A loving man has a very huge responsibility: A mixed methods study of Malawian men's knowledge and beliefs about cervical cancer
BMC PUBLIC HEALTH
Authors: Lewis, Samuel; Moucheraud, Corrina; Schechinger, Devon; Mphande, Misheck; Banda, Ben Allan; Sigauke, Hitler; Kawale, Paul; Dovel, Kathryn; Hoffman, Risa M.
BackgroundIn Malawi, numerous barriers may prevent women from accessing cervical cancer screening services - including social factors such as male partner involvement. We conducted surveys that included open- and closed-ended questions with married Malawian men to evaluate their knowledge and beliefs about cervical cancer.MethodsHIV-positive adult (>= 18years) men (married or in a stable relationship) were recruited from an antiretroviral therapy clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi. Men were asked a series of survey questions to assess their knowledge about cervical cancer, experience with cervical cancer, their female partner's screening history, and their beliefs about gender norms and household decision-making. Following the survey, participants responded to a set of open-ended interview questions about cervical cancer screening, and men's role in prevention.ResultsOne hundred-twenty men were enrolled with average age 44years and 55% having completed secondary school or higher education. Despite only moderate knowledge about cervical cancer and screening (average assessment score of 62% correct), all men expressed support of cervical cancer screening, and most (86%) believed they should be involved in their female partner's decision to be screened. Over half (61%) of men said their female partner had previously been screened for cervical cancer, and this was positively correlated with the male respondent having more progressive gender norms around sexual practices. Some men expressed concerns about the screening process, namely the propriety of vaginal exams when performed by male clinicians, and whether the procedure was painful.ConclusionsMale partners in Malawi want to be involved in decisions about cervical cancer screening, but have limited knowledge about screening, and hold rigid beliefs about gender norms that may affect their support for screening. Messaging campaigns addressing men's concerns may be instrumental in improving women's adoption of cervical cancer screening services in Malawi and similar settings.