Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) and hnRNP A2 Inhibit Splicing to Human Papillomavirus 16 Splice Site SA409 through a UAG-Containing Sequence in the E7 Coding Region
JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY
Authors: Zheng, Yunji; Jonsson, Johanna; Hao, Chengyu; Chaghervand, Shirin Shoja; Cui, Xiaoxu; Kajitani, Naoko; Gong, Lijing; Wu, Chengjun; Schwartz, Stefan
Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) 5'-splice site SD226 and 3'-splice site SA409 are required for production of the HPV16 E7 mRNAs, whereas unspliced mRNAs produce E6 mRNAs. The E6 and E7 proteins are essential in the HPV16 replication cycle but are also the major HPV16 proteins required for induction and maintenance of malignancy caused by HPV16 infection. Thus, a balanced expression of unspliced and spliced mRNAs is required for production of sufficient quantities of E6 and E7 proteins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. If splicing becomes too efficient, the levels of unspliced E6 mRNAs will decrease below a threshold level that is no longer able to produce E6 protein quantities high enough to significantly reduce p53 protein levels. Similarly, if splicing becomes too inefficient, the levels of spliced E7 mRNAs will decrease below a threshold level that is no longer able to produce E7 protein quantities high enough to significantly reduce pRb protein levels. To determine how splicing between SD226 and SA409 is regulated, we have investigated how SA409 is controlled by the cellular proteins hnRNP A1 and hnRNP A2, two proteins that have been shown previously to control HPV16 gene expression. We found that hnRNP A1 and A2 interacted directly and specifically with a C-less RNA element located between HPV16 nucleotide positions 594 and 604 downstream of SA409. Overexpression of hnRNP A1 inhibited SA409 and promoted production of unspliced E6 mRNAs at the expense of the E7 mRNAs, whereas overexpression of hnRNP A2 inhibited SA409 to redirect splicing to SA742, a downstream 3'-splice site that is used for generation of HPV16 E6(boolean AND)E7, E1, and E4 mRNAs. Thus, high levels of either hnRNP A1 or hnRNP A2 inhibited production of the promitotic HPV16 E7 protein. We show that the hnRNP A1 and A2 proteins control the relative levels of the HPV16 unspliced and spliced HPV16 E6 and E7 mRNAs and function as inhibitors of HPV16 E7 expression. IMPORTANCE Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) belongs to the high-risk-group of HPVs and is causing a variety of anogenital cancers and head and neck cancer. The two HPV16 oncoproteins E6 and E7 prevent apoptosis and promote mitosis and are essential for completion of the HPV16 life cycle and for transformation of the infected cell and maintenance of malignancy. E6 and E7 are produced from two mRNAs that are generated in a mutually exclusive manner by alternative splicing. While E6 protein is made from the unspliced mRNA, E7 is made from the spliced version of the same pre-mRNA. Since sufficient quantities of both E6 and E7 are required for malignant transformation,
Transoral robotic surgery and neck dissection for HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma: Importance of nodal count in survival
Authors: Viet, Chi T.; Dierks, Eric J.; Cheng, Allen C.; Patel, Ashish A.; Chang, Shu-Ching; Couey, Marcus A.; Watters, Amber L.; Thien Hoang; Xiao, Hong D.; Crittenden, Marka R.; Leidner, Rom S.; Seung, Steven K.; Young, Kristina H.; Bell, R. Bryan
Background: In this study we determine the survival in patients with HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma treated with transoral robotic surgery (TORS), neck dissection and risk-adapted adjuvant therapy. Methods: We retrospectively identified 122 patients with HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma treated with TORS and neck dissection between 2011 and 2018. Survival probability was calculated. We determined the effect of the type of neck dissection performed (modified radical neck dissection-MRND vs. selective neck dissection - SND), extranodal extension (ENE), margin status, and presence of >= 5 metastatic nodes on survival. Results: Our patient population had a five-year overall survival of 91.0% (95% C.I. 85-97%). The five-year probability of recurrence or cancer-associated death was 0.0977 (95% C.I. 0.0927-0.1027). The five-year probability of cancer-associated death was 0.0528 (95% C.I. 0.048-0.0570). All patients who died of their disease had distant metastasis. Our PEG dependence rate was 0%. Patients with ENE and positive margins who underwent adjuvant chemoradiation did not have worse survival. Presence of >= 5 metastatic nodes portended worse survival after controlling for age, positive ENE and margins. Low yield (< 18 nodes) on neck dissection worsened DFS on multivariable analysis. Furthermore, patients who underwent SND did not have worse OS than those who underwent MRND. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that surgery could be simplified by performing TORS with SND rather than MRND. The one true poor prognostic factor in HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma patients who undergo surgery is high nodal burden. Patients with high nodal burden are much more likely to die from their disease.