Anti-HCoV HKU1 spike glycoprotein monoclonal antibody (CABT-RM315)

Mouse anti-HCoV HKU1 spike glycoprotein monoclonal antibody for ELISA, IHC-P, FC, IF, IP

Specifications


Host Species
Mouse
Antibody Isotype
IgG1
Clone
18
Species Reactivity
HCoV
Immunogen
purified, recombinant Human coronavirus spike glycoprotein
Conjugate
unconjugated

Applications


Application Notes
ELISA: 1:1000-1:2000
*Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrates the product for use in their own experiment using appropriate negative and positive controls.

Target


Alternative Names
HCoV spike glycoprotein;HCoV;Coronavirus;Human Coronavirus;HCoV S glycoprotein;HCoV S protein

Citations


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References


Human Coronavirus-Induced Neuronal Programmed Cell Death Is Cyclophilin D Dependent and Potentially Caspase Dispensable

JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY

Authors: Favreau, Dominique J.; Meessen-Pinard, Mathieu; Desforges, Marc; Talbot, Pierre J.

Human coronaviruses (HCoV) are recognized respiratory pathogens. Some HCoV strains, including HCoV-OC43, can invade the central nervous system, where they infect neurons, with unclear consequences. We have previously reported that HCoV-OC43 infection of human neurons activates the unfolded-protein response and caspase-3 and induces cell death and that the viral spike (S) glycoprotein is involved in the process. We now report on underlying mechanisms associated with the induction of programmed cell death (PCD) after infection by the reference HCoV-OC43 virus (rOC/ATCC) and a more neurovirulent and cytotoxic HCoV-OC43 variant harboring two point mutations in the S glycoprotein (rOC/US183-241). Even though caspase-3 and caspase-9 were both activated after infection, the use of caspase inhibitors neither reduced nor delayed virus-induced PCD, suggesting that these proteases are not essential in the process. On the other hand, the proapoptotic proteins BAX, cytochrome c (CytC), and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) were relocalized toward the mitochondria, cytosol, and nucleus, respectively, after infection by both virus variants. Moreover, LA-N-5 neuronal cells treated with cyclosporine (CsA), an inhibitor of the mitochondrial permeabilization transition pore (mPTP), or knocked down for cyclophilin D (CypD) were completely protected from rOC/ATCC-induced neuronal PCD, underlining the involvement of CypD in the process. On the other hand, CsA and CypD knockdown had moderate effects on rOC/US183-241-induced PCD. In conclusion, our results are consistent with mitochondrial AIF and cyclophilin D being central in HCoV-OC43-induced PCD, while caspases appear not to be essential.

Cleavage of a Neuroinvasive Human Respiratory Virus Spike Glycoprotein by Proprotein Convertases Modulates Neurovirulence and Virus Spread within the Central Nervous System

PLOS PATHOGENS

Authors: Le Coupanec, Alain; Desforges, Marc; Meessen-Pinard, Mathieu; Dube, Mathieu; Day, Robert; Seidah, Nabil G.; Talbot, Pierre J.

Human coronaviruses (HCoV) are respiratory pathogens that may be associated with the development of neurological diseases, in view of their neuroinvasive and neurotropic properties. The viral spike (S) glycoprotein is a major virulence factor for several coronavirus species, including the OC43 strain of HCoV (HCoV-OC43). In an attempt to study the role of this protein in virus spread within the central nervous system (CNS) and neurovirulence, as well as to identify amino acid residues important for such functions, we compared the sequence of the S gene found in the laboratory reference strain HCoV-OC43 ATCC VR-759 to S sequences of viruses detected in clinical isolates from the human respiratory tract. We identified one predominant mutation at amino acid 758 (from RRSR down arrow(G) under bar 758 to RRSR down arrow(R) under bar 758), which introduces a putative furin-like cleavage (down arrow) site. Using a molecular cDNA infectious clone to generate a corresponding recombinant virus, we show for the first time that such point mutation in the HCoV-OC43 S glycoprotein creates a functional cleavage site between the S1 and S2 portions of the S protein. While the corresponding recombinant virus retained its neuroinvasive properties, this mutation led to decreased neurovirulence while potentially modifying the mode of virus spread, likely leading to a limited dissemination within the CNS. Taken together, these results are consistent with the adaptation of HCoV-OC43 to the CNS environment, resulting from the selection of quasi-species harboring mutations that lead to amino acid changes in viral genes, like the S gene in HCoV-OC43, which may contribute to a more efficient establishment of a less pathogenic but persistent CNS infection. This adaptative mechanism could potentially be associated with human encephalitis or other neurological degenerative pathologies.

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