Dynamic Optimal Control for Multi-chemotherapy Treatment of Dual Listeriosis Infection in Human and Animal Population
APPLICATIONS AND APPLIED MATHEMATICS-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL
Authors: Bassey, B. Echeng
Following the rising cases of high hospitalization versa-vise incessant fatality rates and the close affinity of listeriosis with HIV/AIDS infection, which often emanates from food-borne pathogens associated with listeria monocytogenes infection, this present paper seek and formulated as penultimate model, an 8-Dimensional classical mathematical Equations which directly accounted for the biological interplay of dual listeriosis virions with dual set of population (human and animals). The model was studied under multiple chemotherapies (trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole with a combination of penicillin or ampicillin and/or gentamicin). Using ODE's, the positivity and boundedness of system solutions was investigated with model presented as an optimal control problem. In the analysis that follows, the study explored classical Pontryagin's Maximum Principle with which the model optimality control system as well as existence and uniqueness of the control system were established. In correlating the derived model with clinical implications, numerical validity of the model was conducted. Results indicated that under cogent and adherent to specify multiple chemotherapies, maximal recovery of both human and animal infected population was tremendously achieved with consequent rapid decline to near zero infection growth. The study therefore suggests further articulation of more chemotherapies and early application at onset of infection for a visible elimination of listeriosis infection.
Emerging MDR-Pseudomonas aeruginosa in fish commonly harbor oprL and toxA virulence genes and bla(TEM), bla(CTX-M), and tetA antibiotic-resistance genes
Authors: Algammal, Abdelazeem M.; Mabrok, Mahmoud; Sivaramasamy, Elayaraja; Youssef, Fatma M.; Atwa, Mona H.; El-kholy, Ali W.; Hetta, Helal F.; Hozzein, Wael N.
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, antibiogram of Pseudomonasaeruginosa (P.aeruginosa), and the distribution of virulence genes (oprL,exoS, phzM, and toxA) and the antibiotic-resistance genes (bla(TEM), tetA, and bla(CTX-M)). A total of 285 fish (165 Oreochromisniloticus and 120 Clariasgariepinus) were collected randomly from private fish farms in Ismailia Governorate, Egypt. The collected specimens were examined bacteriologically. P. aeruginosa was isolated from 90 examined fish (31.57%), and the liver was the most prominent infected organ. The antibiogram of the isolated strains was determined using a disc diffusion method, where the tested strains exhibited multi-drug resistance (MDR) to amoxicillin, cefotaxime, tetracycline, and gentamicin. The PCR results revealed that all the examined strains harbored (oprL and toxA) virulence genes, while only 22.2% were positive for the phzM gene. On the contrary, none of the tested strains were positive for the exoS gene. Concerning the distribution of the antibiotic resistance genes, the examined strains harbored bla(TEM), bla(CTX-M), and tetA genes with a total prevalence of 83.3%, 77.7%, and 75.6%, respectively. Experimentally infected fish with P.aeruginosa displayed high mortalities in direct proportion to the encoded virulence genes and showed similar signs of septicemia found in the naturally infected one. In conclusion, P.aeruginosa is a major pathogen of O.niloticus and C.gariepinus.oprL and toxA genes are the most predominant virulence genes associated with P.aeruginosa infection. The bla(CTX-M),bla(TEM), and tetA genes are the main antibiotic-resistance genes that induce resistance patterns to cefotaxime, amoxicillin, and tetracycline, highlighting MDR P.aeruginosa strains of potential public health concern.