A novel aptasensor based on HCR and G-quadruplex DNAzyme for fluorescence detection of Carcinoembryonic Antigen
Authors: Bai, Yunfeng; Zhang, Huilin; Zhao, Lu; Wang, Yuzhen; Chen, Xiaoliang; Zhai, Hong; Tian, Maozhong; Zhao, Ruirui; Wang, Tao; Xu, Hui; Feng, Feng
In this paper, a rationally designed aptasensing platform based on Hybridization Chain Reaction (HCR) and G-quadruplex DNAzyme for the fluorescence detection of Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) has been developed. In the presence of target CEA, the aptamer sequence in Aptamer Probe (AP) specifically bound to CEA, resulting in the AP conformation change and thus releasing initiator, which triggered the autonomous cross-opening of Hairpin 1 (H1) and Hairpin 2 (H2) that yielded extended nicked double-stranded DNA via HCR. Upon the addition of hemin, G-rich segments at the end of H1 and H2 self-assembled into the peroxidase-mimicking hemin/G-quadruplex DNAzymes, which catalyzed the hydrogen peroxide-mediated oxidation of thiamine to achieve fluorescence detection of CEA. The HCR product, and the formation and catalytic performance of DNAzyme were characterized by agarose gel electrophoresis, UV-vis spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. Under optimal conditions, the fluorescent aptasensor showed a linear relationship ranging from 0.25 to 1.5 nM toward CEA with a detection limit of 0.2 nM. In addition, this aptasensor exhibited high selectivity for CEA without being affected by other interfering proteins, such as IgG, AFP and PSA. Furthermore, this proposed aptasensor was successfully applied to CEA analysis in diluted human serum samples. It is believed that this strategy has a promising potential in biochemical analysis and clinic application.
Flaxseed and Its Components in Treatment of Hyperlipidemia and Cardiovascular Disease
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ANGIOLOGY
Authors: Prasad, Kailash; Khan, Amal S.; Shoker, Muhammad
This paper describes the effects of flaxseed and its components (flax oil, secoisolariciresinoldiglucoside[SDG], flax lignan complex [FLC], and flax fibers] on serum lipids (total cholesterol [TC], low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], and triglycerides [TG]) in animals and humans. Ordinary flaxseed reduces TG, TC, LDL-C, and TC/HDL-C levels in a dose-dependent manner in animals. In humans, it reduces serum lipids in hypercholesterolemicpatients but has no effects in normocholesterolemicpatients. Flax oil has variable effects on serum lipids in normo- and hypercholesterolemic animals. Flax oil treatment, with a dosage containing greater than 25g/day of alpha-linolenic acid, reduces serum lipids in humans. Although FLC reduces serum lipids and raises serum HDL-C in animals, its effects on serum lipids in humans are small and variable. Flax fibers exert small effects on serum lipids in humans. Crop Development Centre (CDC)-flaxseed, which contains low concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid, has significant lipid lowering effects in animals. Pure SDG has potent hypolipidemic effects and raises HDL-C. In conclusion, flaxseed and pure SDG have significant lipid-lowering effects in animals and humans, while other components of flaxseed have small and variable effects.