Enterotoxemias. Most animal diseases due to Clostridium perfringens are intestinal and involve types B, C or D. Type A has been implicated in rare outbreaks of gastritis and haemolytic disease of ruminants (enterotoxemic jaundice, the yellows, yellow lamb disease) and in hemorrhagic enteritis in cattle, horses, dogs and infant alpacas. Clostridium perfringens type A causes necrotic enteritis in poultry and a mild form of food poisoning in humans. Demonstration of Alpha toxin in the contents of the small intestine is the only way to definitively diagnose enterotoxemia . For that purpose, small amounts of clarified fluid are injected into the tail vein of mice. Death after more than a few minutes postinjection constitues presumptive evidence of enterotoxemia. Other toxins produced by Clostridium perfringens have to be neutralized by specific antisera. By using ELISA method, it is possible to detect Alpha toxin in biological fluids (intestinal, peritoneal or pericardic fluid) or in culture supernatants in less than 3 hours. The test can be used to type an unknown strain in conjunction with beta and epsilon Elisa test kits.