Assessment of Immunogenicity and Neutralisation Efficacy of Viral-Vectored Vaccines Against Chikungunya Virus
Authors: Lopez-Camacho, Cesar; Kim, Young Chan; Blight, Joshua; Moreli, Marcos Lazaro; Montoya-Diaz, Eduardo; Huiskonen, Juha T.; Kuemmerer, Beate Mareike; Reyes-Sandoval, Arturo
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has caused extensive outbreaks in several countries within the Americas, Asia, Oceanic/Pacific Islands, and Europe. In humans, CHIKV infections cause a debilitating disease with acute febrile illness and long-term polyarthralgia. Acute and chronic symptoms impose a major economic burden to health systems and contribute to poverty in affected countries. An efficacious vaccine would be an important step towards decreasing the disease burden caused by CHIKV infection. Despite no licensed vaccine is yet available for CHIKV, there is strong evidence of effective asymptomatic viral clearance due to neutralising antibodies against the viral structural proteins. We have designed viral-vectored vaccines to express the structural proteins of CHIKV, using the replication-deficient chimpanzee adenoviral platform, ChAdOx1. Expression of the CHIKV antigens results in the formation of chikungunya virus-like particles. Our vaccines induce high frequencies of anti-chikungunya specific T-cell responses as well as high titres of anti-CHIKV E2 antibodies with high capacity for in vitro neutralisation. Our results indicate the potential for further clinical development of the ChAdOx1 vaccine platform in CHIKV vaccinology.
Is the brazilian diverse environment is a crib for the emergence and maintenance of exotic arboviruses?
ANAIS DA ACADEMIA BRASILEIRA DE CIENCIAS
Authors: Medeiros, Daniele B. A.; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando C.
We review the potential of Amazon forest as a source for circulation and maintenance of native arboviruses as well its capacity to host exotic arboviruses introduced in Brazil during their process of adapting to the Amazon environment. After a brief introduction about arboviruses isolated in Amazon region and description of the main arboviruses pathogenic to humans, we highlight the history of the last two exotic viruses introduced in Brazil - Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) - and their consequences to the public health. Finally, we discuss and hypothesize what will happen with them after the outbreak. We look to the past to predict the future.