Postnatal functional inactivation of the ventral subiculum enhances dopaminergic responses in the core part of the nucleus accumbens following ketamine injection in adult rats
Authors: Saoud, Hana; De Beus, Duco; Eybrard, Severine; Louilot, Alain
For almost two decades schizophrenia has been considered to be a functional disconnection disorder. This functional disconnectivity between several brain regions could have a neurodevelopmental origin. Various approaches suggest the ventral subiculum (SUB) is a particular target region for neurodevelopemental disturbances in schizophrenia. It is also commonly acknowledged that there is a striatal dopaminergic (DA) dysregulation in schizophrenia which may depend on a subiculo-striatal disconnection involving glutamatergic NMDA receptors. The present study was designed to investigate, in adult rats, the effects of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine on DA responses in the ventral striatum, or, more specifically, the core part of the nucleus accumbens (Nacc), following postnatal functional inactivation of the SUB. Functional inactivation of the left SUB was carried out by local tetrodotoxin (TTX) microinjection at postnatal day 8 (PND8), i.e. at a critical point in the neurodevelopmental period. DA variations were recorded using in vivo voltammetry in freely moving adult rats (11 weeks). Locomotor activity was recorded simultaneously with the extracellular levels of DA in the core part of the Nacc. Data obtained during the present study showed that after administration of ketamine, the two indexes were higher in TTX animals than PBS animals, the suggestion being that animals microinjected with TTX in the left SUB at PND8 present greater reactivity to ketamine than animals microinjected with PBS. These findings could provide new information regarding the involvement of NMDA glutamatergic receptors in the core part of the Nacc in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.
Neuropathic pain in experimental autoimmune neuritis is associated with altered electrophysiological properties of nociceptive DRG neurons
Authors: Taha, Omneya; Opitz, Thoralf; Mueller, Marcus; Pitsch, Julika; Becker, Albert; Evert, Bernd Oliver; Beck, Heinz; Jeub, Monika
Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an acute, immune-mediated polyradiculoneuropathy characterized by rapidly progressive paresis and sensory disturbances. Moderate to severe and often intractable neuropathic pain is a common symptom of GBS, but its underlying mechanisms are unknown. Pathology of GBS is classically attributed to demyelination of large, myelinated peripheral fibers. However, there is increasing evidence that neuropathic pain in GBS is associated with impaired function of small, unmyelinated, nociceptive fibers. We therefore examined the functional properties of small DRG neurons, the somata of nociceptive fibers, in a rat model of GBS (experimental autoimmune neuritis = EAN). EAN rats developed behavioral signs of neuropathic pain. This was accompanied by a significant shortening of action potentials due to a more rapid repolarization and an increase in repetitive firing in a subgroup of capsaicin-responsive DRG neurons. Na+ current measurements revealed a significant increase of the fast TTX-sensitive current and a reduction of the persistent TTX-sensitive current component. These changes of Na+ currents may account for the significant decrease in AP duration leading to an overall increase in excitability and are therefore possibly directly linked to pathological pain behavior. Thus, like in other animal models of neuropathic and inflammatory pain, Na+ channels seem to be crucially involved in the pathology of GBS and may constitute promising targets for pain modulating pharmaceuticals. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.