A New Triglycyl Peptide Linker for Antibody-Drug Conjugates (ADCs) with Improved Targeted Killing of Cancer Cells
MOLECULAR CANCER THERAPEUTICS
Authors: Singh, Rajeeva; Setiady, Yulius Y.; Ponte, Jose; Kovtun, Yelena V.; Lai, Katharine C.; Hong, E. Erica; Fishkin, Nathan; Dong, Ling; Jones, Gregory E.; Coccia, Jennifer A.; Lanieri, Leanne; Veale, Karen; Costoplus, Juliet A.; Skaletskaya, Anna; Gabriel, Rabih; Salomon, Paulin; wu, Rui; Qiu, Qifeng; Erickson, Hans K.; Lambert, John M.; Chari, Ravi V. J.; Widdison, Wayne C.
A triglycyl peptide linker (CX) was designed for use in antibody-drug conjugates (ADC), aiming to provide efficient release and lysosomal efflux of cytotoxic catabolites within targeted cancer cells. ADCs comprising anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (anti-EpCAM) and anti-EGFR antibodies with maytansinoid payloads were prepared using CX or a noncleavable SMCC linker (CX and SMCC ADCs). The in vitro cytotoxic activities of CX and SMCC ADCs were similar for several cancer cell lines; however, the CX ADC was more active (5-100-fold lower IC50) than the SMCC ADC in other cell lines, including a multidrug-resistant line. Both CX and SMCC ADCs showed comparable MTDs and pharmacokinetics in CD-1 mice. In Calu-3 tumor xenografts, antitumor efficacy was observed with the anti-EpCAM CX ADC at a 5-fold lower dose than the corresponding SMCC ADC in vivo. Similarly, the anti-EGFR CX ADC showed improved antitumor activity over the respective SMCC conjugate in HSC-2 and H1975 tumor models; however, both exhibited similar activity against FaDu xenografts. Mechanistically, in contrast with the charged lysine-linked catabolite of SMCC ADC, a significant fraction of the carboxylic acid catabolite of CX ADC could be uncharged in the acidic lysosomes, and thus diffuse out readily into the cytosol. Upon release from tumor cells, CX catabolites are charged at extracellular pH and do not penetrate and kill neighboring cells, similar to the SMCC catabolite. Overall, these data suggest that CX represents a promising linker option for the development of ADCs with improved therapeutic properties. (C) 2016 AACR.
Hematological malignancies and molecular targeting therapy
EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY
Authors: Shimada, Akira
Recent genetic analysis using next-generation sequencing (NGS) vastly improved the understanding of molecular mechanism of hematological malignancies. Many molecular targeting drugs have since been used in the clinic, which is timely as clinical outcomes using conventional chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) reached a plateau. The first memorable success in this field was imatinib, a first-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), which has been applied in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) since 2001. Imatinib drastically changed CML treatment and many CML patients no longer require HSCT. Recently, the second generation TKIs, dasatinib, nilotinib, and ponatinib, have also been available for CML patients. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is sub-categorized based on cytogenetic or molecular genetic abnormalities. Chemotherapy and HSCT combined with TKI improved the event-free survival rate from 20% to 80% in Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome-positive ALL. Reportedly, another Ph-like ALL subgroup with poor prognosis can also be treated by TKIs; additionally, cell therapies that include bispecific T-cell engagers or chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T therapy are emerging. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogenous disease and FMS-like related tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3)-internal tandem duplication, is the most robust marker for poor prognosis. Several first-generation TKIs have been studied for clinical use. Notably, chemotherapy plus midostaurin improved survival compared with chemotherapy alone. Therefore, midostaurin was approved to treat adult AML patients with FLT3-ITD in 2017. Gemtuzumab ozogamicin, a selective anti-CD33 antibody-calicheamicin conjugate, is approved for clinical practice. Many molecular targeting agents are now being used for hematological malignancies.