Research Area

Bone


Introduction of Bone

Bone

Bone is a hard tissue in the body or on the surface of a human or animal. It can be divided into two types. The bones of humans and higher animals are in the body, composed of many bones called endoskeles; the hard shells outside the mollusks and scales of some vertebrates (such as fish, and turtles.) are called exoskeleton. Bone is a hard organ that makes up the vertebrate bones system. Its function is to exercise, support and protect the body. In addition, it can make red blood cells and white blood cells, and store minerals. The bones are made up of a variety of shapes, with complex internal and external structures that allow the bones to remain hard while reducing weight. One of the components of the bone is mineralized bone tissue, which has a hard honeycomb-like structure inside; other tissues include bone marrow, periosteum, nerves, blood vessels, and cartilage. The bones of the human body play a role in supporting the body and are part of the body's movement system. Adults have 206 bones. The bone and bone are generally connected by joints and ligaments.

Bone Structure and Bone Growth

The bone is composed of bone tissue, loose connective tissue, nerve tissue, etc., and bone tissue is the main part. Many needles or lamellae in the bone, the bone structure of the trabeculae are regularly arranged according to the pressure (heavy) force and the direction of tension. This arrangement allows the bone to be made of the most economical bone material to achieve maximum strength. The arrangement of the trabecular bones also adapts to changes in the direction of the (heavy) force and the muscle pulling force. The inside of the bone is still full of bone marrow, and the bone marrow of the human body is divided into two types, red bone marrow and yellow bone marrow. In the fetus and early childhood, all bone marrow is red bone marrow with hematopoietic function. With the increase of age, except for the flat bones, irregular bones and part of the bones (such as hip bone, ribs, sternum, and femur.) the red bone marrow is the ultimate survival, and bone marrow in the marrow cavity will be replaced by adipose tissue and becomes yellow bone marrow. The yellow bone marrow does not have the function of hematopoiesis, but when many people lose blood and malignant anemia, the yellow bone marrow can be converted into red bone marrow, thereby performing the function of hematopoiesis. Like other organs in the body, the bone is rich in blood vessels and nerves, and its cells are constantly reborn and dead, so the bone is a very vital organ. Bone growth includes the thick and length of the bone. During the continuous thickening of the bone, the thickness of the tube wall is not significantly increased. In children and adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18, the bones are not completely ossified (the process of cartilage osteogenesis), and there are still many cartilages, so the bone grows quickly. Generally, during the 18 to 25 years of age, the ossification process is gradually completed, the bones are no longer long, and people are no longer elevated. Women usually complete the ossification process two to three years ahead of men. There are many factors that affect bone growth, including genetics, race, hormones, nutrition, and external forces. Growth hormone secreted by the pituitary gland is particularly important for bone growth. Insufficient growth hormone during childhood can lead to growth retardation and short stature; if it is secreted too much, it will cause bone growth too fast, called giant disease. In addition, the lack of secretion of the thyroid line will also lead to the obstacles in the growth of the bone, resulting in short stature and mental retardation. The hormone secreted by the gonads also plays an important role in the growth and maturation of the bone. In the case of premature gonad development, the ossification process will be accelerated, and the bone will no longer grow. In terms of nutrition, the lack of vitamin A can lead to abnormal bone growth and slow bone growth, but too much will make the bone brittle and easy to break. Lack of vitamin C can cause stagnant bone growth and fractures are not easy to heal. Lack of vitamins D affects the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the intestines, which leads to the inability of calcification of bone tissue and rickets. During the ossification of the bone, the part with higher pressure develops faster than the part with less stress.

Some ways to keep your bones healthy

Calcium can strengthen our bones. Vitamin D can help us absorb calcium. Postmenopausal women need to add 1200 mg of calcium and at least 400-600 IU of vitamin D daily to ensure the health of the bones. Any patient with osteoporosis should check the levels of vitamin D and calcium in the blood by blood. Calcium supplementation with osteoporosis can stop bone loss, a process that will make bones self-renew. Bones need stressful stimuli to make them stronger, which mean weight-bearing training can make bones stronger. Many doctors recommend walking every day. Walking, jogging, and relaxed aerobic exercise can make bones and muscles fight gravity and make bones stronger. Cycling is a great way to treat bones. It provides some resistance so that it can improve muscles and strengthen bones.

References:

  1. Singer F R. Bone Quality in Paget's Disease of Bone. Current Osteoporosis Reports. 2016, 14(2):1-4.
  2. Nazarian A, Christiansen B A. Trabecular bone: light as a feather, stiff as a board. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. 2015, 137(1).
  3. Marx R E. Bone and bone graft healing. Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America. 2007, 19(4):455-466.
  4. Pacovský V, Broulík P, Wilczek H, et al. Regulation of bone metabolism. Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských. 1983, 122(35):1057.

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