Anti-CML Mouse autoAntibody ELISA Kit (DEIABL517)

Regulatory status: For research use only, not for use in diagnostic procedures.

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Size
96T
Sample
serum, plasma
Species Reactivity
Mouse
Intended Use
The Anti-CML mouse autoantibody ELISA Kit is used for the semi-quantitative measurement of IgG class anti-CML/Nε-(carboxymethyl) lysine mouse autoantibody in mouse serum and plasma.
Storage
- Upon receipt store all components at 4°C.
- Don't expose reagents to excessive light.
Precision
Intra-assay (Within-Run, n=8) CV=5.7 %
Inter-assay (Run-to-Run, n=4) CV=8.9 %
Sensitivity
The limit of detection (defined as such a concentration of anti-CML antibody giving absorbance lower than mean absorbance plus three standard deviations of the absorbance of Blank: Blank + 3*SD Blank) is better than 0.162 ng/mL of sample.
General Description
Reducing sugars react with protein amino groups to form a diverse group of protein-bound moieties with fluorescent and cross-linking properties. These compounds, called advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs), have been implicated in the structural and functional alterations of proteins that occur during aging and long-term diabetes. Although several AGE structures have been reported, it was demonstrated that Nε-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML) is a major antigenic AGE structure. CML concentration is also increased in patients who have diabetes with complications, including nephropathy, retinopathy, and atherosclerosis. CML is also recognized by receptor for AGE (RAGE), and CML-RAGE interaction activates cell signaling pathways such as NF-B and enhances the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. It has been postulated that AGE structures present in vivo could serve as an immunological epitope to raise autoantibodies against AGE structures, particularly CML. Shibayama et al. showed the presence of autoantibodies against AGE structures, particularly those against CML adduct in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and patients with several diseases. The autoantibody against CML adduct was higher in patients with renal failure than in normal subjects or diabetic patients without renal failure. These results suggest that autoantibody against CML might play a possible role in the development of diabetic nephropathy or chronic renal failure.

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References


Outcomes of Chronic Phase Chronic Myeloid Leukemia after Treatment with Multiple Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE

Authors: Kong, Jee Hyun; Winton, Elliott F.; Heffner, Leonard T.; Gaddh, Manila; Hill, Brittany; Neely, Jessica; Hatcher, Angela; Joseph, Meena; Arellano, Martha; El-Rassi, Fuad; Kim, Audrey; Khoury, Jean Hanna; Kota, Vamsi K.

We sought to evaluate the outcomes of chronic phase (CP) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in an era where five tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are commercially available for the treatment of CML. Records of patients diagnosed with CP CML, treated with TKIs and referred to our center were reviewed. Between January 2005 and April 2016, 206 patients were followed for a median of 48.8 (1.4-190.1) months. A total of 76 (37%) patients received one TKI, 73 (35%) received two TKIs and 57 (28%) were exposed to >3 TKIs (3 TKIs, n = 33; 4 TKIs, n = 17; 5 TKIs, n = 7). Nineteen (9.2%) patients progressed to advanced phases of CML (accelerated phase, n = 6; myeloid blastic phase, n = 4; lymphoid blastic phase, n = 9). One third (n = 69) achieved complete molecular response (CMR) at first-line treatment. An additional 55 patients achieved CMR after second-line treatment. Twenty-five patients (12.1%) attempted TKI discontinuation and 14 (6.8%) stopped TKIs for a median of 6.3 months (range 1-53.4). The 10-year progression-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates were 81% and 87%, respectively. OS after 10-years, based on TKI exposure, was 100% (1 TKI), 82% (2 TKIs), 87% (3 TKIs), 75% (4 TKIs) and 55% (5 TKIs). The best OS was observed in patients tolerating and responding to first line TKI, but multiple TKIs led patients to gain treatment-free remission.

Single-ended ring oscillators: analysis and design

IET CIRCUITS DEVICES & SYSTEMS

Authors: Zafarkhah, Elnaz; Maymandi-Nejad, Mohammad; Zare, Maryam

In this study the authors propose a novel and straightforward design procedure for the single-ended ring oscillator (SERO). This procedure determines the values of the circuit parameters to reach the desired oscillation frequency while the power consumption and the area are minimised and the noise is kept below the desired value. Furthermore, the authors analyse the SERO and suggest a practical formula for the oscillation frequency. In comparison to the conventional equations, the derived formula is accurate as well as explicit. The accuracy of the proposed frequency equation is verified using simulation. The average of the absolute errors over a wide range of parameters is 2.52%, and the worst case error is 9.64%. In addition, the power consumption of the SERO is analysed and a formula is presented for estimating the power consumption.

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