Randomized controlled trial of a gluten-free diet in patients with schizophrenia positive for antigliadin antibodies (AGA IgG): a pilot feasibility study
JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY & NEUROSCIENCE
Authors: Kelly, Deanna L.; Demyanovich, Haley K.; Rodriguez, Katrina M.; Cihakova, Daniela; Talor, Monica, V; McMahon, Robert P.; Richardson, Charles M.; Vyas, Gopal; Adams, Heather A.; August, Sharon M.; Fasano, Alessio; Cascella, Nicola G.; Feldman, Stephanie M.; Liu, Fang; Sayer, MacKenzie A.; Powell, Megan M.; Wehring, Heidi J.; Buchanan, Robert W.; Gold, James M.; Carpenter Jr, William T.; Eaton, William W.
Background Approximately one-third of people with schizophrenia have elevated levels of antigliadin antibodies of the immunoglobulin G type (AGA IgG) - a higher rate than seen in healthy controls. We performed the first double-blind clinical trial of gluten-free versus gluten-containing diets in a subset of patients with schizophrenia who were positive for AGA IgG. Methods In this pilot feasibility study, 16 participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who had elevated AGA IgG (>= 20 U) but were negative for celiac disease were admitted to an inpatient unit for a 5-week trial. All participants received standardized gluten-free meals and were randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive a shake containing 10 g of gluten flour or 10 g of rice flour each day. Participants were rated for psychiatric, cognitive and gastrointestinal symptoms at baseline and end point. Results Of the 16 participants, 14 completed the 5-week trial (2 discontinued early for administrative reasons). Compared with participants on the gluten-containing diet, participants on the gluten-free diet showed improvement on the Clinical Global Impressions scale (Cohen d = -0.75) and in negative symptoms (Cohen d = -0.53). We noted no improvement in positive or global cognitive symptoms, but did observe an improvement in attention favouring the gluten-free diet (Cohen d = 0.60). Robust improvements in gastrointestinal adverse effects occurred in the gluten-free group relative to the gluten-containing group. Adverse effects were similar between groups. Limitations This study was limited by its small sample size; larger studies are needed. Conclusion This feasibility study suggests that removal of gluten from the diet is associated with improvement in psychiatric and gastrointestinal symptoms in people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.
Rheological and microstructural characteristics of low molecular weight glutenin subunits of commercial wheats
Authors: Dangi, Priya; Chaudhary, Nisha; Khatkar, B. S.
A study was conducted on the effects occurred in rheological properties of base flour dough by the addition of gluten, glutenin and purified low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) using a 4 g sample Microdoughlab (MDL). Incorporation of these elements brought about a significant increase in the dough strength in the order of LMW-GS < gluten < glutenin. LMW-GS from variety C 306 brought a decrease in the dough development time (DDT; 2.03 min), dough stability (DS; 3 min) and peak energy (EP; 2.90 Wh/kg) values. On the contrary, the effects of LMW-GS extracted from variety PBW 550 were more strong as indicated by an increase in DDT (2.75 min), DS (3.30 min) and EP (4.20 Wh/kg). The alterations in the microstructure of dough by the inclusion of gluten, glutenin and LMW-GS, which lacks resemblance among different samples, were contemplated subjecting it to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).