Coevolution pays off: Herpesviruses have the license to escape the DNA sensing pathway
MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY
Authors: Stempel, Markus; Chan, Baca; Brinkmann, Melanie M.
Early detection of viral invasion by pattern recognition receptors (PRR) is crucial for the induction of a rapid and efficient immune response. Cytosolic DNA sensors are the most recently described class of PRR, and induce transcription of type I interferons (IFN) and proinflammatory cytokines via the key adaptor protein stimulator of interferon genes (STING). Herpesviruses are a family of large DNA viruses widely known for their immense arsenal of proteins dedicated to manipulating and evading host immune responses. Tantamount to the significant role played by DNA sensors and STING in innate immune responses, herpesviruses have in turn evolved a range of mechanisms targeting virtually every step of this key signaling pathway. Strikingly, some herpesviruses also take advantage of this pathway to promote their own replication. In this review, we will summarize the current understanding of DNA sensing and subsequent induction of signaling and transcription, and showcase the close adaptation of herpesviruses to their host reflected by the myriad of viral proteins dedicated to modulating this critical innate immune pathway.
Manipulation of the Innate Immune Response by Varicella Zoster Virus
FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY
Authors: Gerada, Chelsea; Campbell, Tessa M.; Kennedy, Jarrod J.; McSharry, Brian P.; Steain, Megan; Slobedman, Barry; Abendroth, Allison
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is the causative agent of chickenpox (varicella) and shingles (herpes zoster). VZV and other members of the herpesvirus family are distinguished by their ability to establish a latent infection, with the potential to reactivate and spread virus to other susceptible individuals. This lifelong relationship continually subjects VZV to the host immune system and as such VZV has evolved a plethora of strategies to evade and manipulate the immune response. This review will focus on our current understanding of the innate anti-viral control mechanisms faced by VZV. We will also discuss the diverse array of strategies employed by VZV to regulate these innate immune responses and highlight new knowledge on the interactions between VZV and human innate immune cells.