Relationships of varicella zoster virus (VZV)-specific cell-mediated immunity and persistence of VZV DNA in saliva and the development of postherpetic neuralgia in patients with herpes zoster
JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY
Authors: Park, Seong Yeon; Kim, Ji Yeun; Kwon, Ji-Soo; Jeon, Na Young; Kim, Min-Chul; Chong, Yong Pil; Lee, Sang-Oh; Choi, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yang Soo; Woo, Jun Hee; Kim, Sung-Han
There are no surrogate markers for the development of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in patients with herpes zoster (HZ). All patients with HZ were prospectively enrolled to evaluate the associations of saliva varicella zoster virus (VZV) DNA persistence and VZV-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) with the development of PHN. Slow clearers were defined if salivary VZV DNA persisted after day 15. Salivary VZV was detected in 60 (85.7%) of a total of 70 patients with HZ on initial presentation. Of 38 patients for whom follow-up saliva samples were available, 26 (68.4%) were classified as rapid clearers and 12 (31.6%) as slow cleares. Initial VZV-specific CMI was lower in slow clearers than rapid clearers (median 45 vs 158 spot forming cells/10(6) cells, P = .02). Of the 70 patients with HZ, 22 (31.4%) eventually developed PHN. Multivariate analysis showed that slow clearers (OR, 15.7, P = .01) and lower initial VZV-specific CMI (OR, 13.8, P = .04) were independent predictors of the development of PHN, after adjustment for age and immunocompromised status. Initial low VZV CMI response and persistence of VZV DNA in saliva may be associated with the development of PHN.
Acute urinary retention and progressive paraplegia with genital infection: A case report of transverse myelitis
HONG KONG JOURNAL OF EMERGENCY MEDICINE
Authors: Kim, Eun; Lee, Duk Hee
Introduction: Transverse myelitis (TM) is a rare inflammatory disorder involving single or multiple spinal segments. There are various Infectious and parainfectious causes. Case presentation: We report the case of 29-year-old female who presented to an emergency department with acute urinary retention, progressive headache and sensory and motor deficits with a genital infection. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed WBC 75/mu L, protein 96 (15-40 mg/dL), and VZV IgG positive. The magnetic resonance image (MRI) of the spine revealed acute transverse myelitis of C4, C6/C7 and T2-T3, T4-T7. She was treated with steroid pulse therapy, intravenous antiviral therapy, antibiotics, and rehabilitation. Urinary symptoms resolved in six days and her motor deficit resolved. She had mild numbness in the thigh area 2 months later. Discussion: Identification of the causes and diagnosis of TM are challenging because there are variable clinical signs and numerous potential pathogens. Conclusion: It is essential to diagnosis TM in the early and timely phase, careful, detailed history and thorough physical examination by emergency physicians.