Regulatory status: For research use only, not for use in diagnostic procedures.

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Species Reactivity
Intended Use
VZV IgG ELISA Kit is intended for in vitro diagnosis of VZV associated diseases, namely varicella and herpes zoster. The diagnostic kit can also be utilized for differential diagnosis of neuro infections, infections of eye and skin exanthematous diseases.
Contents of Kit
1. ELISA break-away strips (blue)
2. Positive control serum
3. Negativecontrol serum
4. Calibrator
5. Anti-human IgG antibodies
6. Wash buffer
7. Dilution buffer (DB)
8. Chromogenic substrate (TMB substrate)
9. Stop solution
Store the kit reagents at 2-8°C. For longer period make aliquots and keep them at -20°C. Avoid repeated thawing and freezing. For more detailed information, please download the following document on our website
Intra assay variability: 2.7-8.7%
Inter assay variability: 9.7-10%
The diagnostic sensitivity of the test is 96.6% and the specificity is 96.9%.


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A fatal case of severe systemic varicella zoster infection in a patient with chronic use of immunosuppressive agents for cutaneous vasculitis


Authors: Lin, Wei-Chen; Chang, Ching; Ko, Meng-Cheng; Lin, Shu-Min

Acute varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection is a common condition in children, which is considered a mild, self-limited disease with diffuse skin vesicular rash. However, disseminated VZV infection with multiple organ involvement can occur in immunocompromised patients with impaired T cell immunity including solid or hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, receiving immunosuppressive therapy, leukemia, lymphoma, and HIV infection. Prompt antiviral therapy is mandatory in those immunocompromised persons. A 52 year-old man receiving chronic immunosuppressive drugs for his underlying leukocytoclastic vasculitis visited emergency department for diffuse skin vesicular rash that developed 4 days after contact with varicella zoster patients at his office. Despite prompt initiation of oral antiviral agents had been prescribed, rapid progression with septic shock, lactate acidosis, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy occurred. The patient died within 24 h of intensive care unit admission. Varicella zoster infection commonly causes severe complications in adults receiving chronic immunosuppressive therapy. Post exposure prophylaxis varicella zoster immune globulin and early parenteral antiviral agents use after acute varicella virus infection may be mandatory in immunocompromised patients. (c) 2019 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Herpes Virus Reactivation in Astronauts During Spaceflight and Its Application on Earth


Authors: Rooney, Bridgette V.; Crucian, Brian E.; Pierson, Duane L.; Laudenslager, Mark L.; Mehta, Satish K.

Latent herpes virus reactivation has been demonstrated in astronauts during shuttle (1016 days) and International Space Station (>= 180 days) flights. Following reactivation, viruses are shed in the body fluids of astronauts. Typically, shedding of viral DNA is asymptomatic in astronauts regardless of mission duration; however, in some cases, live/infectious virus was recovered by tissue culture that was associated with atopic-dermatitis or skin lesions during and after spaceflight. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) axes activation during spaceflight occurs as indicated by increased levels of stress hormones including cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. These changes, along with a decreased cell mediated immunity, contribute to the reactivation of latent herpes viruses in astronauts. Currently, 47/89 (53%) astronauts from shuttle-flights and 14/23 (61%) astronauts from ISS missions shed one or more herpes viruses in saliva/urine samples. Astronauts shed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and herpes-simplex-1 (HSV-1) in saliva and cytomegalovirus (CMV) in urine. Larger quantities and increased frequencies for these viruses were found during spaceflight as compared to before or after flight samples and their matched healthy controls. The shedding did not abate during the longer ISS missions, but rather increased in frequency and amplitude. These findings coincided with the immune system dysregulation observed in astronauts from shuttle and ISS missions. VZV shedding increased from 41% in space shuttle to 65% in ISS missions, EBV increased 82 to 96%, and CMV increased 47 to 61%. In addition, VZV/CMV shed <= 30 days after ISS in contrast to shuttle where VZV/CMV shed up to 5 and 3 days after flight respectively. Continued shedding of infectious-virus post-flight may pose a potential risk for crew who may encounter newborn infants, sero-negative adults or any immunocompromised individuals on Earth. Therefore, developing spaceflight countermeasures to prevent viral reactivation is essential. Our spaceflight-developed technologies for saliva collection/rapid viral detection have been extended to include clinical applications including zoster patients, chicken pox, post-herpetic neuralgia, multiple sclerosis, and various neurological disorders. These protocols are employed in various clinics and hospitals including the CDC and Columbia University in New York, as well as overseas in Switzerland and Israel.

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