RETRACTED: A homing system targets therapeutic T cells to brain cancer (Retracted article. See vol. 567, pg. 132, 2019)
Authors: Samaha, Heba; Pignata, Antonella; Fousek, Kristen; Ren, Jun; Lam, Fong W.; Stossi, Fabio; Dubrulle, Julien; Salsman, Vita S.; Krishnan, Shanmugarajan; Hong, Sung-Ha; Baker, Matthew L.; Shree, Ankita; Gad, Ahmed Z.; Shum, Thomas; Fukumura, Dai; Byrd, Tiara T.; Mukherjee, Malini; Marrelli, Sean P.; Orange, Jordan S.; Joseph, Sujith K.; Sorensen, Poul H.; Taylor, Michael D.; Hegde, Meenakshi; Mamonkin, Maksim; Jain, Rakesh K.; El-Naggar, Shahenda; Ahmed, Nabil
Successful T cell immunotherapy for brain cancer requires that the T cells can access tumour tissues, but this has been difficult to achieve. Here we show that, in contrast to inflammatory brain diseases such as multiple sclerosis, where endothelial cells upregulate ICAM1 and VCAM1 to guide the extravasation of pro-inflammatory cells, cancer endothelium downregulates these molecules to evade immune recognition. By contrast, we found that cancer endothelium upregulates activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM , which allowed us to overcome this immune-evasion mechanism by creating an ALCAM-restricted homing system (HS). We re-engineered the natural ligand of ALCAM, CD6, in a manner that triggers initial anchorage of T cells to ALCAM and conditionally mediates a secondary wave of adhesion by sensitizing T cells to low-level ICAM1 on the cancer endothelium, thereby creating the adhesion forces necessary to capture T cells from the bloodstream. Cytotoxic HS T cells robustly infiltrated brain cancers after intravenous injection and exhibited potent antitumour activity. We have therefore developed a molecule that targets the delivery of T cells to brain cancer.
A tale of two niches: differential functions for VCAM-1 in satellite cells under basal and injured conditions
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-CELL PHYSIOLOGY
Authors: Choo, Hyo-Jung; Canner, James P.; Vest, Katherine E.; Thompson, Zachary; Pavlath, Grace K.
Cell-cell adhesion molecules play key roles in maintaining quiescence or promoting activation of various stem cells in their niche. Muscle stem cells called satellite cells (SC) are critical for skeletal muscle regeneration after injury, but little is known about the role of adhesion molecules in regulating the behavior of these stem cells. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1) is a cell-cell adhesion protein expressed on quiescent and activated SC whose function is unknown in this context. We deleted Vcam1 from SC using an inducible Cre recombinase in young mice. In the injured niche, Vcam 1(-/-) SC underwent premature lineage progression to a more differentiated state as well as apoptosis leading to a transient delay in myofiber growth during regeneration. Apoptosis was also increased in Vcam 1(-/-) SC in vitro concomitant with decreased levels of phosphorylated Akt, a prosurvival signal activated by VCAM-1 signaling in other cell types. During muscle regeneration, we observed an influx of immune cells expressing alpha 4 integrin, a component of the major, high-affinity VCAM-1 ligand, alpha 4 beta 1 integrin. Furthermore, alpha 4 integrin mRNA and protein were induced in SC 2 days after injury. These results suggest that SC interact with other SC as well as immune cells through alpha 4 beta 1 integrin in the injured niche to promote expansion of SC. In the uninjured niche, multiple cell types also expressed alpha 4 integrin. However, only basal fusion of Vcam 1(-/-) SC with myofibers was decreased, contributing to decreased myofiber growth. These studies define differential roles for VCAM-1 in SC depending on the state of their niche.