Role of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1, matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, and heparin binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor in estradiol-17 beta-stimulated bovine satellite cell proliferation
DOMESTIC ANIMAL ENDOCRINOLOGY
Authors: Kamanga-Sollo, E.; Thornton, K. J.; White, M. E.; Dayton, W. R.
In feedlot steers, estradiol-17 beta (E2) and combined E2 and trenbolone acetate (a testosterone analog) implants enhance rate and efficiency of muscle growth; and, consequently, these compounds are widely used as growth promoters. Although the positive effects of E2 on rate and efficiency of bovine muscle growth are well established, the mechanisms involved in these effects are not well understood. Combined E2 and trenbolone acetate implants result in significantly increased muscle satellite cell number in feedlot steers. Additionally, E2 treatment stimulates proliferation of cultured bovine satellite cells (BSC). Studies in nonmuscle cells have shown that binding of E2 to G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER)-1 results in activation of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP2/9) resulting in proteolytic release of heparin binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (hbEGF) from the cell surface. Released hbEGF binds to and activates the epidermal growth factor receptor resulting in increased proliferation. To assess if GPER-1, MMP2/9, and/or hbEGF are involved in the mechanism of E2-stimulated BSC proliferation, we have examined the effects of G36 (a specific inhibitor of GPER-1), CRM197 (a specific inhibitor of hbEGF), and MMP-2/MMP-9 Inhibitor II (an inhibitor of MMP2/9 activity) on E2-stimulated BSC proliferation. Inhibition of GPER-1, MMP2/9, or hbEGF suppresses E2-stimulated BSC proliferation (P < 0.001) suggesting that all these are required in order for E2 to stimulate BSC proliferation. These results strongly suggest that E2 may stimulate BSC proliferation by binding to GPER-1 resulting in MMP2/9-catalyzed release of cell membrane-bound hbEGF and subsequent activation of epidermal growth factor receptor by binding of released hbEGF. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Effects of immunization against luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and treatment with trenbolone acetate on reproductive function of beef bulls and steers
JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE
Authors: Geary, T. W.; Wells, K. J.; deAvila, D. M.; deAvila, J.; Conforti, V. A.; McLean, D. J.; Roberts, A. J.; Waterman, R. W.; Reeves, J. J.
The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the ability of trenbolone acetate (TBA) administered in tandem with LHRH immunization to suppress reproductive function in bulls and 2) to examine the effects of LHRH and androgen (TBA) signaling on pituitary gland function. Forty-four Angus x Hereford crossbred calves (BW = 225 +/- 2 kg; age = 187 +/- 6 d) received castration, LHRH immunization, or TBA administration in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design. Treatment groups receiving LHRH immunization contained 6 animals, whereas other treatment groups contained 5 animals. Animals immunized against LHRH received a primary injection and 2 booster injections of ovalbumin-LHRH-7 fusion protein on d 0, 42, and 196, respectively. Animals treated with TBA were implanted on d 224. Serum LHRH antibodies increased (P < 0.05) after each booster for immunized animals, but were negligible in nonimmunized animals throughout the experiment. Serum testosterone concentration (P < 0.001) and scrotal circumference (P < 0.05) were depressed in LHRH-immunized bulls compared with nonimmunized bulls by d 84 and 168 of the experiment, respectively. Treatment with TBA tended (P = 0.08) to decrease serum testosterone concentrations of nonimmunized bulls. Weights of testes at slaughter were decreased (P < 0.001) for LHRH-immunized (232 +/- 41 g) compared with nonimmunized (752 +/- 45 g) bulls, but did not differ (P = 0.80) between TBA-implanted (500 +/- 49 g) and nonimplanted bulls (484 +/- 36 g). Both LHRH immunization and castration decreased pituitary gland stores of LH and FSH (P < 0. 001). There was no effect (P > 0.10) of TBA on pituitary gland FSH content and only a tendency (P = 0.09) to increase pituitary gland LH content. Immunization against LHRH decreased expression of LH beta-subunit and common alpha-subunit genes (P < 0.001). Castration increased expression of LH beta-subunit and common alpha-subunit genes (P = 0.02). Treatment with TBA further suppressed (P = 0.04) alpha-subunit mRNA expression in LHRH-immunized steers. In summary, LHRH immunization decreased synthesis and storage of LH and decreased storage, but not synthesis of FSH in bulls. The increased synthesis of LH and FSH in nonimmunized, but not LHRH-immunized steers suggests that castration removes the negative feedback on gonadotropin synthesis but that LHRH is still needed for release of these hormones. Androgen replacement with TBA did not restore the negative feedback control of gonadotropin synthesis.