Seroprevalence of Toxocara Canis in the city of Catania, Italy
MEDITERRANEAN JOURNAL OF HEMATOLOGY AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES
Authors: Nicoletti, Alessandra; Cicero, Calogero Edoardo; Mantella, Antonia; Giuliano, Loretta; Rascuna, Cristina; Paradisi, Vincenza; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Zappia, Mario; Sofia, Vito
Toxocariasis is one of the most common helminthiases worldwide. However, there is a lack of data regarding Southern Italy. We have evaluated the seroprevalence and associated environmental factors of toxocariasis in a sample of adults living in the city of Catania. Presence of anti-Toxocara canis IgG antibodies was searched using an ELISA test using excretory/secretory antigens. Environmental risk factors have been evaluated with a face-to-face questionnaire. Two hundred eighty-seven subjects (193 [67.3%] women, mean age 48.1 +/- 15.6 years) were enrolled, and presence of anti T. canis antibodies was found in 23 participants, of whom 18 (78.3%) were women with a mean age of 51.1 +/- 14.0 years, giving a seroprevalence of 8.0% (95% CI 5.4-11.7). At multivariate analysis, a positive association for subjects with more than three siblings (adjOR 3.17; 95% CI 1.09-9.25) was recorded. Our study confirms that exposition to T. canis is frequent also in urban areas of western countries.
Phenotypic, Genotypic, and Antimicrobial Characteristics of Streptococcus halichoeri Isolates from Humans, Proposal To Rename Streptococcus halichoeri as Streptococcus halichoeri subsp halichoeri, and Description of Streptococcus halichoeri subsp hominis subsp nov., a Bacterium Associated with Human Clinical Infections
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY
Authors: Shewmaker, P. L.; Whitney, A. M.; Humrighouse, B. W.
Phenotypic, genotypic, and antimicrobial characteristics of six phenotypically distinct human clinical isolates that most closely resembled the type strain of Streptococcus halichoeri isolated from a seal are presented. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, sodA, and recN genes; comparative whole-genome analysis; conventional biochemical and Rapid ID 32 Strep identification methods; and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed on the human isolates, the type strain of S. halichoeri, and type strains of closely related species. The six human clinical isolates were biochemically indistinguishable from each other and showed 100% 16S rRNA, rpoB, sodA, and recN gene sequence similarity. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis revealed 98.6% similarity to S. halichoeri CCUG 48324(T), 97.9% similarity to S. canis ATCC 43496(T), and 97.8% similarity to S. ictaluri ATCC BAA-1300(T). A 3,530-bp fragment of the rpoB gene was 98.8% similar to the S. halichoeri type strain, 84.6% to the S. canis type strain, and 83.8% to the S. ictaluri type strain. The S. halichoeri type strain and the human clinical isolates were susceptible to the antimicrobials tested based on CLSI guidelines for Streptococcus species viridans group with the exception of tetracycline and erythromycin. The human isolates were phenotypically distinct from the type strain isolated from a seal; comparative whole-genome sequence analysis confirmed that the human isolates were S. halichoeri. On the basis of these results, a novel subspecies, Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. hominis, is proposed for the human isolates and Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. halichoeri is proposed for the gray seal isolates. The type strain of the novel subspecies is SS1844(T) = CCUG 67100(T) = LMG 28801(T).