Tetanus IgG ELISA Kit (DEIA10378)

Regulatory status: For research use only, not for use in diagnostic procedures.

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Size
96T
Sample
serum, plasma
Species Reactivity
Human
Intended Use
Enzyme immunoassays (microtiter strips) for the quantitative determination of IgG antibodies against Tetanus in human serum and plasma.
Contents of Kit
1. Microtiter Plate
2. Standards A-E
3. Enzyme Conjugate IgG
4. Dilution Buffer
5. Wash Buffer(10x)
6. TMB Substrate Solution
7. TMB Stop Solution
Storage
The kit is shipped at ambient temperature and should be stored at 2-8°C. Keep away from heat or direct sun light. The storage and stability of specimen and prepared reagents is stated in the corresponding chapters.
The microtiter strips are stable up to 3 months after the first opening when stored at 2-8°C in the tightly closed bag.
Performance Characteristics
General Description
Tetanus, also called lockjaw, is an infection disease caused by the toxin from Gram-positive bacteria Clostridium tetani. Spores of this bacterium are introduced into the body through puncture wound. Under these anaerobic conditions the bacteria grow and produce toxins (tetanospasmin, tetanolysin), which cause the typical muscle spasms in the jaw and elsewhere in the body.
The outcome of this avoidable infectious disease is so dangerous (lethality 50 %) that a wide prophylaxis through better hygienic conditions and an individual protection by antibodies (vaccination) is required. Vaccine recommendations across the lifespan, including both primary series and booster doses are given by the medical societies (WHO, RKI) and are often country-specific. Sufficient protection is achieved by vaccination and following booster injections. In children under the age of seven, the tetanus vaccine is administered as a combined vaccine, which also includes vaccines against diphtheria and pertussis (DPT). Immunity is generally achieved by three lifetime doses of the vaccine; booster shots of the vaccine are recommended every ten years to maintain immunity. For adults and children over seven also combined vaccines of tetanus and diphtheria (DT, DTaP) are commonly used.
There is only a very low vaccination risk and only limited side effects to these vaccines. Nevertheless it is advisable to detect the immunity with a qualified test before boostering especially for older patients or patients with immunodeficiencies.
Serological determination of tetanus toxoid antibodies indicate whether a basic immunization or a booster is necessary ("vaccination management"). This enables the physician to match immune status and active immunization for each patient individually. Several methods like RIA, FIA, ELISA or neutralisation test are used to determine the antibody titer. ELISA kits have been found to be some of the most effective diagnostic tools to determine tetanus antitoxins in human serum because of their high sensitivity, easy handling and excellent automatization.

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References


CRISPR-Cas13d for Gene Knockdown and Engineering of CHO Cells

ACS SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY

Authors: Shen, Chih-che; Lin, Mei-Wei; Thi Nguyen, Bao Khanh; Chang, Chin-Wei; Shih, Jie-Ru; Thi Nguyen, Mai Thanh; Chang, Yi-Hao; Hu, Yu-Chen

Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the predominant cell chassis for biopharmaceutical production. Engineering cellular pathways related to cell death, metabolism, and glycosylation in CHO cells is desired but challenging. Here, we present a novel approach that exploits CRISPR-Cas13d for gene silencing and CHO cell engineering. CRISPR-Cas13d is a burgeoning system that exploits Cas13d nuclease and guide RNA (gRNA) for RNA cleavage and gene knockdown. We first showed that CRISPR-Cas13d effectively knocked down exogenous genes in CHO cell lines (K1, DG44, and DUXB11) commonly used for recombinant protein production. We next demonstrated that CRISPR-Cas13d robustly suppressed the expression of exogenous genes and various endogenous genes involved in gene amplification, apoptosis, metabolism, and glycosylation (e.g., GS, BAK, BAX, PDK1, and FUT8) in CHO cells with efficiencies ranging from 60% to 80%, simply by transient transfection. By integrating the entire CRISPR-Cas13d system with the Sleeping Beauty system and optimal gRNA design, we further improved the knockdown efficiency and rapidly generated stable cells with approximate to 80%-90% knockdown. With this approach, we knocked down FUT8 expression for >90% and significantly attenuated the IgG fucosylation. These data altogether implicated the potentials of CRISPR-Cas13d for gene regulation, glycoengineering, and cell engineering of CHO cells.

Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase 4 Deficiency in a Greek Teenager

CASE REPORTS IN IMMUNOLOGY

Authors: Karananou, Panagiota; Alataki, Anastasia; Papadopoulou-Alataki, Efimia

Background. Human interleukin- (IL-) 1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4) deficiency is a recently described primary immunodeficiency. It is a rare, autosomal recessive immunodeficiency that impairs toll/IL-1R immunity, except for the toll-like receptor (TLR) 3- and TLR4-interferon alpha (IFNA)/beta (IFNB) pathways.Case Report. We report the first patient in Greece with IRAK-4 deficiency. From the age of 8 months, she presented with recurrent infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract and skin abscesses. For this, she had been repeatedly hospitalized and treated empirically with intravenous antibiotics. No severe viral, mycobacterial, or fungal infections were noted. Her immunological laboratory evaluation revealed low serum IgA and restored in subsequent measurements; normal IgG, IgM, and IgE; and normal serum IgG subclasses. Peripheral blood immunophenotyping by flow cytometry and dihydrorhodamine (DHR) test revealed normal counts. She was able to make functional antibodies against vaccine antigens, including tetanus and diphtheria. She was administered with empirical IgG substitution for 5 years until the age of 12 years, and she has never experienced invasive bacterial infections so far. DNA analysis revealed a heterozygous variant in the patient: c.823delT (p.S275fs*13 at protein level) in the IRAK4 gene.Conclusions. The importance of clinical suspicion is emphasized in order to confirm the diagnosis by IRAK4 gene sequencing and provide the appropriate treatment for this rare primary immunodeficiency, as soon as possible.

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