CRISPR-Cas13d for Gene Knockdown and Engineering of CHO Cells
ACS SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY
Authors: Shen, Chih-che; Lin, Mei-Wei; Thi Nguyen, Bao Khanh; Chang, Chin-Wei; Shih, Jie-Ru; Thi Nguyen, Mai Thanh; Chang, Yi-Hao; Hu, Yu-Chen
Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the predominant cell chassis for biopharmaceutical production. Engineering cellular pathways related to cell death, metabolism, and glycosylation in CHO cells is desired but challenging. Here, we present a novel approach that exploits CRISPR-Cas13d for gene silencing and CHO cell engineering. CRISPR-Cas13d is a burgeoning system that exploits Cas13d nuclease and guide RNA (gRNA) for RNA cleavage and gene knockdown. We first showed that CRISPR-Cas13d effectively knocked down exogenous genes in CHO cell lines (K1, DG44, and DUXB11) commonly used for recombinant protein production. We next demonstrated that CRISPR-Cas13d robustly suppressed the expression of exogenous genes and various endogenous genes involved in gene amplification, apoptosis, metabolism, and glycosylation (e.g., GS, BAK, BAX, PDK1, and FUT8) in CHO cells with efficiencies ranging from 60% to 80%, simply by transient transfection. By integrating the entire CRISPR-Cas13d system with the Sleeping Beauty system and optimal gRNA design, we further improved the knockdown efficiency and rapidly generated stable cells with approximate to 80%-90% knockdown. With this approach, we knocked down FUT8 expression for >90% and significantly attenuated the IgG fucosylation. These data altogether implicated the potentials of CRISPR-Cas13d for gene regulation, glycoengineering, and cell engineering of CHO cells.
Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase 4 Deficiency in a Greek Teenager
CASE REPORTS IN IMMUNOLOGY
Authors: Karananou, Panagiota; Alataki, Anastasia; Papadopoulou-Alataki, Efimia
Background. Human interleukin- (IL-) 1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4) deficiency is a recently described primary immunodeficiency. It is a rare, autosomal recessive immunodeficiency that impairs toll/IL-1R immunity, except for the toll-like receptor (TLR) 3- and TLR4-interferon alpha (IFNA)/beta (IFNB) pathways.Case Report. We report the first patient in Greece with IRAK-4 deficiency. From the age of 8 months, she presented with recurrent infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract and skin abscesses. For this, she had been repeatedly hospitalized and treated empirically with intravenous antibiotics. No severe viral, mycobacterial, or fungal infections were noted. Her immunological laboratory evaluation revealed low serum IgA and restored in subsequent measurements; normal IgG, IgM, and IgE; and normal serum IgG subclasses. Peripheral blood immunophenotyping by flow cytometry and dihydrorhodamine (DHR) test revealed normal counts. She was able to make functional antibodies against vaccine antigens, including tetanus and diphtheria. She was administered with empirical IgG substitution for 5 years until the age of 12 years, and she has never experienced invasive bacterial infections so far. DNA analysis revealed a heterozygous variant in the patient: c.823delT (p.S275fs*13 at protein level) in the IRAK4 gene.Conclusions. The importance of clinical suspicion is emphasized in order to confirm the diagnosis by IRAK4 gene sequencing and provide the appropriate treatment for this rare primary immunodeficiency, as soon as possible.