The use of Hericium erinaceus and Trametes versicolor extracts in supportive treatment in oncology
Authors: Winder, Mateusz; Bulska-Bedkowska, Weronika; Chudek, Jerzy
Substances available in nature with potential therapeutic effects are the subject of research that raises tremendous hopes for new challenges in medicine. Fungi are the most common organisms in the ecosystem and the most interesting in this respect. This review discusses two species of edible fungi, used for centuries in Eastern natural medicine, with the best-documented effect - Hericium erinaceus (He) and Trametes versicolor (Tv). The results of in vivo and in vitro studies conducted on mice and human cell lines demonstrate immunomodulatory, potentially, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and neuroregenerative effects of substances isolated from these fungi. The substances contained in the extracts of He and Tv seem to have immunomodulatory effects that may support chemotherapy. The use of these extracts is justified stronger than the other supportive treatments based on supplements.
TLR2/4 promotes PGE(2) production to increase tissue damage in Escherichia coli-infected bovine endometrial explants via MyD88/p38 MAPK pathway
Authors: Li, Tingting; Hai, Lili; Liu, Bo; Mao, Wei; Liu, Kun; Shen, Yuan; Li, Qianru; Guo, Yuli; Jia, Yan; Bao, Haixia; Cao, Jinshan
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)), a lipid mediator, is released by several cell types including endometrial cells and plays a central role in bacterial infection of the endometrium during inflammation. PGE(2) production accumulated in Escherichia coli (E. coli)-infected bovine endometrial tissue, which increased E. coli-infected endometrial tissue damage. However, the mechanisms of PGE(2) accumulation in the E. coli-infected endometrium during inflammation-associated endometrial tissue damage remain unclear. This study was conducted to investigate the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4 in increased PGE(2) production in E. coli-infected endometrial tissue. E. coli and TLR2/4 agonists significantly induced cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 expression and PGE(2) synthesis detected by RT-PCR, Western blot, and ELISA in the endometrial tissue. The expression and synthesis were dramatically decreased by TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor88 (MyD88), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors in E. coli-infected endometrial tissue. These inhibitors also significantly decreased proinflammatory factor (interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and damage-associated molecular pattern (high mobility group box-1 and hyaluronan-binding protein-1) release and tissue damage measured by double-label immunofluorescence in E. coli-infected endometrial explants. Our work provides in vitro evidence that TLR2/4-MyD88/p38 MAPK promotes PGE(2) synthesis and E. coli-infected endometrial tissue damage, which may be useful for improving PGE(2)-based therapies for endometritis. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.