Use of cannabidiol (CBD) for the treatment of chronic pain
BEST PRACTICE & RESEARCH-CLINICAL ANAESTHESIOLOGY
Authors: Urits, Ivan; Gress, Kyle; Charipova, Karina; Habib, Kelly; Lee, David; Lee, Christopher; Jung, Jai Won; Kassem, Hisham; Cornett, Elyse; Paladini, Antonella; Varrassi, Giustino; Kaye, Alan D.; Viswanath, Omar
Chronic pain can be recurrent or constant pain that lasts for longer than 3 months and can result in disability, suffering, and a physical disturbance. Related to the complex nature of chronic pain, treatments have a pharmacological and non-pharmacological approach. Due to the opioid epidemic, alternative therapies have been introduced, and components of the plant Cannabis Sativa, Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) have gained recent interest as a choice of treatment. The exact mechanism for CBD is currently unknown, but unlike the CBD's psychoactive counterpart, THC, the side effects of CBD itself have been shown to be overall much more benign. The current pharmaceutical products for the treatment of chronic pain are known as nabiximols, and they contain a ratio of THC combined with CBD, which has been promising. This review focuses on the treatment efficacy of CBD, THC: CBD-based treatments for chronic pain and adverse events with each. (C) 2020 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
A Novel Kelch-Like-1 Is Involved in Antioxidant Response by Regulating Antioxidant Enzyme System inPenaeus vannamei
Authors: Qiao, Xue-Li; Liang, Qing-Jian; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Wei-Na
Heavy metals are typical cumulative pollutants that can enter and poison the human body through the food chain. However, the molecular mechanism of heavy metal-induced oxidative stress is unclear. In this study, we characterize PvKelch-like-1 fromP. vannameiand explore its antioxidant roles in immune regulation of crustaceans.PvKelch-like-1 full length contains 2107 nucleotides, consists of a 5 ' untranslated region (UTR) of 79 bp, a 3 ' UTR of 180 bp, and a ORF of 1848 encoded 615 amino acids, which contain a BTB, BACK and Kelch motif, putative molecular mass and isoelectric point were 69 KDa and 6.54. PvKelch-like-1 mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in all detected tissue ofP. vannamei, and mRNA expression levels were significantly up-regulated from 6 to 24 h after cadmium stress and reached the highest level (3.2-fold) at 12 h in the hepatopancreas. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that PvKelch-like-1 was localized in the nucleus. Silencing PvKelch-like-1 significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) (1.61-fold) production and DNA damage (1.32-fold) in the shrimp hemolymph, and significantly decreased total hemocyte counts (THC) (0.64-fold) at 6 h in hemolymph. Additionally, the antioxidant genes PvCAT (0.43-fold), PvMnSOD (0.72-fold), PvGST (0.31-fold) and PvGPx (0.59-fold) at 6 h were decreased significantly in PvKelch-like-1 silenced shrimp after cadmium stress. Overexpression of PvKelch-like-1 has the opposite results in enzyme activity. The SOD (2.44-fold) and CAT (2.19-fold) activities were significantly increased after overexpressing PvKelch-like-1. These results suggest that PvKelch-like-1 plays a vital role in shrimp innate immune defense by positively regulating the expression of antioxidant enzyme genes to respond to cadmium stress.