Tetrahydrocannabinol Rapid Test (DTS175)

Regulatory status: For research use only, not for use in diagnostic procedures.

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Intended Use
Rapid THC Test is an immunochromatography based one step in vitro test. It is designed for qualitative determination of THC and its metabolites in human urine specimens. The presence of 11-nor-Δ9-THC-9-COOH in human urine above a cut-off level of 50 ng/ml can be detected. This assay may be used in the point of care setting.
This assay provides only a preliminary analytical test result. A more specific alternative chemical method must be used in order to obtain a confirmed analytical result. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been established as the preferred confirmatory method by the Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Clinical consideration and professional judgment should be applied to any drug of abuse test result, particularly when preliminary positive results are indicated.
The test device should be stored at 2 to 30°C and will be effective until the expiration date stated on the package. The product is humidity-sensitive and should be used immediately after being open. Any improperly sealed product should be discarded.
The accuracy of Rapid THC Test was evaluated in comparison to GC/MS at a cut-off of 50 ng/ml of 11-nor-Δ9-THC-9-COOH. Eighty eight urine specimens with GC/MS confirmed 11-nor-Δ9-THC-9-COOH concentration were evaluated in this study. The results are summarized and presented below:
Positive % agreement: 84.1;
Negative % agreement: 98.2.

Two specimens were found discrepant between the RapidTHC and GC/MS method. When compared those data, 50% (1 out of 2) of the discrepancy specimens were found between -25% and +25% cut-off concentration (37.5 - 62.5 ng/ml).
The cut-off concentration (sensitivity level) of Rapid THC Test is determined to be 50ng/ml.
General Description
The agents of Marijuana that cause various biological effects in humans are called cannabinoid. Cannabinoid is a central nervous stimulant that alters mood and sensory perceptions, produces loss of coordination, impairs short term memory, produces symptoms of anxiety, paranoia, depression, confusion, hallucination, and increased heart rate. Large doses of cannabinoid could cause the development of tolerances and physiological dependency and lead to abuse. A tolerance to the cardiac and psychotropic effects can occur and withdrawal syndrome produces restlessness, insomnia, anorexia and nausea. Δ9-THC is the primary active ingredient in cannabinoids. The main metabolite excreted in the urine is 11-nor-Δ9-THC-9-COOH, which are found within hours of exposure and remain detectable in the urine for 3-10 days after smoking. However, the length of time following drug use for which a positive result may occur is dependent upon several factors, including the frequency and amount of drug, metabolic rate, excretion rate, drug half-life, and the drug user's age, weight, activity, and diet.


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Use of cannabidiol (CBD) for the treatment of chronic pain


Authors: Urits, Ivan; Gress, Kyle; Charipova, Karina; Habib, Kelly; Lee, David; Lee, Christopher; Jung, Jai Won; Kassem, Hisham; Cornett, Elyse; Paladini, Antonella; Varrassi, Giustino; Kaye, Alan D.; Viswanath, Omar

Chronic pain can be recurrent or constant pain that lasts for longer than 3 months and can result in disability, suffering, and a physical disturbance. Related to the complex nature of chronic pain, treatments have a pharmacological and non-pharmacological approach. Due to the opioid epidemic, alternative therapies have been introduced, and components of the plant Cannabis Sativa, Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) have gained recent interest as a choice of treatment. The exact mechanism for CBD is currently unknown, but unlike the CBD's psychoactive counterpart, THC, the side effects of CBD itself have been shown to be overall much more benign. The current pharmaceutical products for the treatment of chronic pain are known as nabiximols, and they contain a ratio of THC combined with CBD, which has been promising. This review focuses on the treatment efficacy of CBD, THC: CBD-based treatments for chronic pain and adverse events with each. (C) 2020 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

A Novel Kelch-Like-1 Is Involved in Antioxidant Response by Regulating Antioxidant Enzyme System inPenaeus vannamei


Authors: Qiao, Xue-Li; Liang, Qing-Jian; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Wei-Na

Heavy metals are typical cumulative pollutants that can enter and poison the human body through the food chain. However, the molecular mechanism of heavy metal-induced oxidative stress is unclear. In this study, we characterize PvKelch-like-1 fromP. vannameiand explore its antioxidant roles in immune regulation of crustaceans.PvKelch-like-1 full length contains 2107 nucleotides, consists of a 5 ' untranslated region (UTR) of 79 bp, a 3 ' UTR of 180 bp, and a ORF of 1848 encoded 615 amino acids, which contain a BTB, BACK and Kelch motif, putative molecular mass and isoelectric point were 69 KDa and 6.54. PvKelch-like-1 mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in all detected tissue ofP. vannamei, and mRNA expression levels were significantly up-regulated from 6 to 24 h after cadmium stress and reached the highest level (3.2-fold) at 12 h in the hepatopancreas. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that PvKelch-like-1 was localized in the nucleus. Silencing PvKelch-like-1 significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) (1.61-fold) production and DNA damage (1.32-fold) in the shrimp hemolymph, and significantly decreased total hemocyte counts (THC) (0.64-fold) at 6 h in hemolymph. Additionally, the antioxidant genes PvCAT (0.43-fold), PvMnSOD (0.72-fold), PvGST (0.31-fold) and PvGPx (0.59-fold) at 6 h were decreased significantly in PvKelch-like-1 silenced shrimp after cadmium stress. Overexpression of PvKelch-like-1 has the opposite results in enzyme activity. The SOD (2.44-fold) and CAT (2.19-fold) activities were significantly increased after overexpressing PvKelch-like-1. These results suggest that PvKelch-like-1 plays a vital role in shrimp innate immune defense by positively regulating the expression of antioxidant enzyme genes to respond to cadmium stress.

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