Thyroxine (T4) [BSA] (DAG3031)

Thyroxine (T4), BSA-Conjugated, synthetic

Product Overview
Thyroxine, BSA-Conjugated
Target
Thyroxine
Nature
Synthetic
Tag/Conjugate
BSA
Procedure
None
Preservative
0.1% Sodium Azide
Storage
2-8°C short term, -20°C long term
Warnings
PLEASE note that this product is intended for research use only; not for diagnostic or clinical use.
Introduction
The thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and its prohormone, thyroxine (T4), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland that are primarily responsible for regulation of metabolism. Iodine is necessary for the production of T3 and T4. A deficiency of iodine leads to decreased production of T3 and T4, enlarges the thyroid tissue and will cause the disease known as simple goitre. The major form of thyroid hormone in the blood is thyroxine (T4), which has a longer half-life than T3. The ratio of T4 to T3 released into the blood is roughly 20 to 1. T4 is converted to the active T3 (three to four times more potent than T4) within cells by deiodinases (5'-iodinase). These are further processed by decarboxylation and deiodination to produce iodothyronamine (T1a) and thyronamine (T0a). All three isoforms of the deiodinases are selenium-containing enzymes, thus dietary selenium is essential for T3 production.
Keywords
Thyroxine

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Thyroxine [HSA] (DAG159S)

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References


Maternal serum perfluoroalkyl substance mixtures and thyroid hormone concentrations in maternal and cord sera: The HOME Study

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH

Authors: Lebeaux, Rebecca M.; Doherty, Brett T.; Gallagher, Lisa G.; Zoeller, R. Thomas; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Yolton, Kimberly; Chen, Aimin; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Braun, Joseph M.; Romano, Megan E.

Background: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous. Previous studies have found associations between PFAS and thyroid hormones in maternal and cord sera, but the results are inconsistent. To further address this research question, we used mixture modeling to assess the associations with individual PFAS, interactions among PFAS chemicals, and the overall mixture. Methods: We collected data through the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study, a prospective cohort study that between 2003 and 2006 enrolled 468 pregnant women and their children in the greater Cincinnati, Ohio region. We assessed the associations of maternal serum PFAS concentrations measured during pregnancy with maternal (n = 185) and cord (n = 256) sera thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxine (TT4), total triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) using two mixture modeling approaches (Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) and quantile g-computation) and multivariable linear regression. Additional models considered thyroid autoantibodies, other non-PFAS chemicals, and iodine deficiency as potential confounders or effect measure modifiers. Results: PFAS, considered individually or as mixtures, were generally not associated with any thyroid hormones. A doubling of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) had a positive association with cord serum TSH in BKMR models but the 95% Credible Interval included the null (beta = 0.09; 95% CrI: -0.08, 0.27). Using BKMR and multivariable models, we found that among children born to mothers with higher thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), PFOS, and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) were associated with decreased cord FT4 suggesting modification by maternal TPOAb status. Conclusions: These findings suggest that maternal serum PFAS concentrations measured in the second trimester of pregnancy are not strongly associated with thyroid hormones in maternal and cord sera. Further analyses using robust mixture models in other cohorts are required to corroborate these findings.

L-Thyroxine Therapy for Older Adults With Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Hypothyroid Symptoms Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Trial

ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE

Authors: de Montmollin, Maria; Feller, Martin; Beglinger, Shanthi; McConnachie, Alex; Aujesky, Drahomir; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Ford, Ian; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Kearney, Patricia M.; McCarthy, Vera J. C.; Mooijaart, Simon; Poortvliet, Rosalinde K. E.; Quinn, Terence; Stott, David J.; Watt, Torquil; Westendorp, Rudi; Rodondi, Nicolas; Bauer, Douglas C.

Background: L-thyroxine does not improve hypothyroid symptoms among adults with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). However, those with greater symptom burden before treatment may still benefit. Objective: To determine whether L-thyroxine improves hypothyroid symptoms and tiredness among older adults with SCH and greater symptom burden. Design: Secondary analysis of the randomized, placebocontrolled trial TRUST (Thyroid Hormone Replacement for Untreated Older Adults with Subclinical Hypothyroidism Trial). (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01660126) Setting: Switzerland, Ireland, the Netherlands, and Scotland. Participants: 638 persons aged 65 years or older with persistent SCH (thyroid-stimulating hormone level of 4.60 to 19.9 mIU/L for >3 months and normal free thyroxine level) and complete outcome data. Intervention: L-thyroxine or matching placebo with mock dose titration. Measurements: 1-year change in Hypothyroid Symptoms and Tiredness scores (range, 0 to 100; higher scores indicate more symptoms) on the Thyroid-Related Quality-of-Life Patient-Reported Outcome Questionnaire among participants with high symptom burden (baseline Hypothyroid Symptoms score >30 or Tiredness score >40) versus lower symptom burden. Results: 132 participants had Hypothyroid Symptoms scores greater than 30, and 133 had Tiredness scores greater than 40. Among the group with high symptom burden, the Hypothyroid Symptoms score improved similarly between those receiving L-thyroxine (mean within-group change, -12.3 [95% CI, -16.6 to -8.0]) and those receiving placebo (mean within-group change, -10.4 [CI, -15.3 to -5.4]) at 1 year; the adjusted between-group difference was -2.0 (CI, -5.5 to 1.5; P = 0.27). Improvements in Tiredness scores were also similar between those receiving L-thyroxine (mean within-group change, -8.9 [CI, -14.5 to -3.3]) and those receiving placebo (mean within-group change, -10.9 [CI, -16.0 to -5.8]); the adjusted between-group difference was 0.0 (CI, -4.1 to 4.0; P = 0.99). There was no evidence that baseline Hypothyroid Symptoms score or Tiredness score modified the effects of L-thyroxine versus placebo (P for interaction = 0.20 and 0.82, respectively). Limitation: Post hoc analysis, small sample size, and examination of only patients with 1-year outcome data. Conclusion: In older adults with SCH and high symptom burden at baseline, L-thyroxine did not improve hypothyroid symptoms or tiredness compared with placebo.

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