Human Scrub Typhus IgG ELISA kit (DEIABL76)

Regulatory status: For research use only, not for use in diagnostic procedures.

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Size
96T
Sample
serum, plasma
Species Reactivity
Human
Intended Use
The Scrub Typhus IgG ELISA test for exposure to Orientia tsutsugamushi (OT; formerly Rickettsia) is an ELISA assay system for the detection of IgG antibodies in human plasma/serum to OT derived recombinant antigen (1-10). This test is to aid in the diagnosis of human exposure to OT species. It is not intended to screen blood or blood components, and is for research use only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.
Contents of Kit
1. Scrub Typhus ELISA Plate
2. Sample Dilution Buffer for Scrub Typhus
3. Scrub Typhus IgM Positive Control
4. Scrub Typhus Negative Control
5. Ready to Use Enzyme Conjugate-HRP for Scrub Typhus IgM
6. 10X Wash Buffer
7. Wash Solution
8. Liquid TMB Substrate
9. Stop Solution
Storage
Stable at 2-8°C until the expiration date.
Performance Characteristics
Serum and Plasma Comparisons: The assay described here has been optimized with serum. Care should be taken on the quality of sample. Particulate, lipemic, and aged samples should not be used. Use of freshly drawn sample is preferred.
Specificity and sensitivity: Detail specificity and sensitivity have been not been established. Limited studies have been performed.

Summary
The results on the table below must be obtained using provided positive and negative control to calculate discrimination capacity of the assay: Non-fulfillment of these criteria is an indication of deterioration of reagents or an error in the test procedure and the assay must be repeated.
General Description
Scrub Typhus is an infectious disease that is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi (formerly Rickettsia), a tiny parasite about the size of bacteria that belongs to the family Rickettsiaceae. A bite from the larval trombiculid mite, a parasite of rodents, will transmit the disease. An ulcer of the skin is characteristic of a bite from a trombiculid mite, followed by symptoms including fever, a spotted rash on the torso, and swelling of the lymph glands. Scrub typhus generally occurs after exposure to areas with secondary (scrub) vegetation, which is where its name is derived from. However, the disease can also be prevalent in sandy, mountainous, and tropical areas. Scrub Typhus is a world wide illness, but particular to South East Asia and the Western Pacific. It accounts for approximately 20% of fever in some regions in South East Asia, where it is endemic. Illness lasts for a period of 10 to 12 days after the initial bite. With therapy, the fever will break within 36 hours, but if left untreated, complications or death may occur.

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References


Emerging Infections in Children in North India: Scrub Typhus

JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Authors: Mina, Shyam S.; Kumar, Viredra; Chhapola, Viswas

Rickettsial infections are re-emerging zoonotic bacterial infections in the Indian subcontinent. This study summarizes the epidemiologic aspects, clinical and laboratory features of scrub typhus in pediatric patients. Children who presented with fever for more than 5 days without an identifiable cause were investigated for scrub typhus by immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A total of 72 cases were screened. Forty-three of them were categorized as probable cases and qualified for specific antirickettsial therapy. Effective management and early administration of antibiotics might prevent the complications and mortality associated with scrub typhus.

Scrub typhus in Jiangsu Province, China: epidemiologic features and spatial risk analysis

BMC INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Authors: Yu, Huiyan; Sun, Changkui; Liu, Wendong; Li, Zhifeng; Tan, Zhongming; Wang, Xiaochen; Hu, Jianli; Shi, Shanqiu; Bao, Changjun

Background: With the increasing incidence of scrub typhus in recent years, it is of great value to analyse the spatial and temporal distribution of scrub typhus by applying micro-geographical studies at a reasonably fine scale, and to guide the control and management. Methods: We explored the use of maximum entropy modelling method to confirm the spatial and temporal distribution of scrub typhus according to the occurrence locations of human cases in Jiangsu Province. The risk prediction map under specific environmental factors was therefore drawn by projecting the training model across China. The area under the curve and the omission rate were used to validate the model. Meanwhile, Jackknife tests were applied to enumerate the contribution of different environmental variables, then to predict the final model. The predicted results were validated by using China's known occurrence locations. Results: A total of 566 occurrence locations with known 4865 scrub typhus occurrence records were used in our study. The number of female cases was higher than male cases, with a proportion of 1.17:1, and people in any age group could be infected. The number of cases presented an inverted-U relation with age. The percentage of cases aged from 60 to 69 years old was the highest, accounting for 30.50% of all cases. Ecological niche modelling results indicated that the locations of scrub typhus cases, which was of great importance in the disease transmission cycle, had a certain ecological niche with environmental elements in many dimensions. Moreover, the key environmental factors for determining scrub typhus occurrence were temperature (including temperature seasonality, min temperature of coldest month, mean diurnal range, and monthly mean temperature), precipitation of wettest month, and land cover types. The risk prediction maps indicated that mid-eastern China was the potential risk areas for scrub typhus of "autumn type". Meanwhile, in our results, Guangdong Province was the high-risk region for "autumn type" scrub typhus, where cases were mainly reported as "summer type". Conclusion: The combination of climatic and geographic factors with GIS methods is an appropriate option to analyse and estimate the spatial and temporal distribution of scrub typhus.

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