Sorption and retention of diclofenac on zeolite in the presence of cationic surfactant
JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
Authors: Sun, Ken; Shi, Yan; Wang, Xiaoyu; Li, Zhaohui
Diclofenac (DC) is one of the most widely prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and one of the commonly found pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments and wastewater treatment plants. It possesses negative charges when solution pH is greater than its pKa value, while most of the soil components and sediment minerals bear negative charges, too, resulting in a net repulsion between the soil minerals and DC. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been studied extensively over the last 20 years for its effective removal of anionic contaminants tested under different experimental scales. However, its application for the removal of anionic drugs, such as DC, was less reported. This study focused on the sorption of DC by SMZ under different physic-chemical conditions, supplemented with instrumental analyses, in order to elucidate the mechanism of DC sorption by SMZ and to expand the SMZ application further. The results showed that the retention of DC was on the external surfaces of SMZ with extremely fast removal rate. Both anion exchange and partitioning of DC into the adsorbed surfactant micelles (admicelles) were responsible for the extended DC sorption. Interactions of DC with SMZ were facilitated with the benzene ring, the -C=O, and the CH2CH3 functional groups. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Integrated toxic evaluation of sulfamethazine on zebrafish: Including two lifespan stages (embryo-larval and adult) and three exposure periods (exposure, post-exposure and re-exposure)
Authors: Yan, Zhengyu; Yang, Qiulian; Jiang, Weili; Lu, Jilai; Xiang, Zhongrun; Guo, Ruixin; Chen, Jianqiu
Persistence of antibiotics in aquatic environment may pose a risk to the non-target aquatic organisms. This study provided an integrated evaluation to analyze the toxic stress of sulfamethazine (SMZ) on zebrafish in two lifespan stages (embryo-larval and adult) and three exposure periods (exposure, post exposure and re-exposure). Zebrafish embryos and adult zebrafish were exposed to SMZ at 0.2, 20 and 2000 mu g/L, respectively. The results showed that SMZ at any given concentration inhibited the hatching of embryos at 58-96 hpf (hours post-fertilization). Our result also indicated that two major kinds of the malformation, which was induced by the antibiotic, were edema and spinal curvature. Additionally, the antibiotic stimulated the heartbeat while reduced the body length of the embryo at 72 hpf. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents significantly increased at 120 hpf when the embryos were exposed to the lowest concentration (0.2 mu g/L) of the antibiotic. On the other hand, the antibiotic induced SOD activities and MDA contents in adult zebrafish in the exposure and re-exposure periods. The MDA contents could recover while SOD activities still increased in 2 d after the exposure. Both SOD activities and MDA contents could recover in 7 d after the exposure. Levels of SOD and MDA in the re-exposure were higher than those in the first exposure. Our results suggested that SMZ had toxic effects on both embryos and adult zebrafish, and provided an integrated evaluation of the toxic effects of SMZ on zebrafish at a new perspective. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.