Inflammatory mediators ATP and S100A12 activate the NLRP3 inflammasome to induce MUC5AC production in airway epithelial cells
BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS
Authors: Kim, Karam; Kim, Hye Jeong; Binas, Bert; Kang, Jin Hyun; Chung, Il Yup
Danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPS) play a proinflammatory role in the pathogenesis of airway obstructive diseases such as severe asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The NLRP3 inflammasome is a cytosolic multiprotein platform that activates the caspase-1 pathway in response to inflammatory stimuli such as DAMPs. ATP and S100 proteins are newly identified DAMPs that accumulate in inflamed airways. We previously demonstrated that S100A8, S100A9, and S100A12 induce production and secretion of MUC5AC, a major mucin in the conducting airway mucosa. The purpose of this study was to determine the involvement of NLRP3 inflammasome in, and the contribution of ATP to, 5100 protein-induced MUC5AC production by NCI-H292 mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells. Stimulation with either S100A12 or ATP led to MUC5AC production at comparable levels. Simultaneous treatment with both stimuli resulted in additive increases in NLRP3, active caspase-1, IL-1 beta, NLRP3/caspase-1 colocalization, and MUC5AC. NLRP3 siRNA or inhibitors of NF-kappa B, NLRP3 inflammasome oligomerization, or caspase-1 nearly completely inhibited ATP- and S100A12-mediated MUC5AC production. Furthermore, S100A12-as well as ATP-mediated MUC5AC production was almost equally blunted by both nonspecific and specific antagonists of the purinergic receptor P2X7, a principal receptor mediating NLRP3 inflammasome activation by ATP. Thus, these two danger signals contribute to MUC5AC production in airway epithelial cells through overlapping signaling pathways for NLRP3 inflammasome activation. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Expression and clinical significance of S100 family genes in patients with melanoma
Authors: Xiong, Ting-feng; Pan, Fu-qiang; Li, Dong
Genes in the S100 family are abnormally expressed in a variety of tumor cells and are associated with clinical pathology, but their prognostic value in melanoma patients has not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we extracted and profiled S100 family mRNA expression data and corresponding clinical data from the Gene Expression Omnibus database to analyze how expression of these genes correlates with clinical pathology. Compared with normal skin, S100A1, S100A13, and S100B were expressed at significantly higher levels in melanoma samples. S100A2, S100A7, S100A8, S100A9, S100A10, S100A11, and S100P were all highly expressed in primary melanoma samples but were expressed at low levels in metastatic melanoma, and all of these genes were strongly correlated with each other (P<0.001). We found the expression of these S100 family genes to be significantly correlated with both lymphatic and distant melanoma metastasis, as well as with American Joint Committee on Cancer grade but not with Clark's grade, age, or sex. This suggests that expression of these genes may be related to the degree of tumor invasion. Although further validation through basic and clinical trials is needed, our results suggest that the S100 family genes have the potential to play an important role in the diagnosis of melanoma. S100 expression may be related to tumor invasion and may facilitate the early diagnosis of melanoma, allowing for a more accurate prognosis. Targeted S100 therapies are also potentially viable strategies in the context of melanoma.