S. aureus Enterotoxin Type B Toxoid (DAGB111)

S. aureus Enterotoxin Type B Toxoid, native protein from S. aureus

Nature
Native
Tag/Conjugate
Unconjugated
Endotoxin
The endotoxin content, determined using a kinetic chromogenic LAL assay, is approximately 2 EU/mg.
Alternative Names
EntB; Enterotoxin type B; SEB; Staph. aureus Enterotoxin B ; entB; entC1
Procedure
None
Format
Lyophilized power
Size
0.25 mg
Preservative
None
Storage
Store at 2-8°C prior to reconstitution. Following reconstitution, aliquot and freeze.
Reconstitution
When reconstituted with 500 μl water, contains 250 μg of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Type B Toxoid in 0.1M Histidine, 0.1M Sodium Chloride, pH 7.0, with 5% Trehalose.
Antigen Description
Staphylococcal enterotoxins B (SEB) is described as a superantigen for its ability to bind to Major Histocompatibility Complex molecules on antigen presenting cells and stimulate a large population of T cells, producing an inappropriate flood of cytokines. Although they are important participants in an immune response, cytokines, when overproduced, lead to toxic shock. Recently SEB has been found to bind to another regulator of the T cell immune response, CD 28. When added to human peripheral blood cells, SEB produces large quantities of IL-2, TNF-A and INF-c. Native SEB toxin has been treated with formaldehyde to produce a toxoid which has reduced cytokine stimulating activity and immunogenicity when compared with the native toxin. Care must be taken in the design of experiments with the toxoid because although toxicity has been reduced, sufficient toxicity may remain to cause death under certain conditions. Both the toxin and toxoid are handled as Select Agents and Toxins.

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References


Transcriptome and secretome analysis of Aspergillus fumigatus in the presence of sugarcane bagasse

BMC GENOMICS

Authors: de Gouvea, Paula Fagundes; Bernardi, Aline Vianna; Gerolamo, Luis Eduardo; Santos, Emerson de Souza; Riano-Pachon, Diego Mauricio; Uyemura, Sergio Akira; Dinamarco, Taisa Magnani

Background: Sugarcane bagasse has been proposed as a lignocellulosic residue for second-generation ethanol (2G) produced by breaking down biomass into fermentable sugars. The enzymatic cocktails for biomass degradation are mostly produced by fungi, but low cost and high efficiency can consolidate 2G technologies. A. fumigatus plays an important role in plant biomass degradation capabilities and recycling. To gain more insight into the divergence in gene expression during steam-exploded bagasse (SEB) breakdown, this study profiled the transcriptome of A. fumigatus by RNA sequencing to compare transcriptional profiles of A. fumigatus grown on media containing SEB or fructose as the sole carbon source. Secretome analysis was also performed using SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS. Results: The maximum activities of cellulases (0.032 U mL-1), endo-1,4-beta-xylanase (10.82 U mL-1) and endo-1,3-beta glucanases (0.77 U mL-1) showed that functional CAZymes (carbohydrate-active enzymes) were secreted in the SEB culture conditions. Correlations between transcriptome and secretome data identified several CAZymes in A. fumigatus. Particular attention was given to CAZymes related to lignocellulose degradation and sugar transporters. Genes encoding glycoside hydrolase classes commonly expressed during the breakdown of cellulose, such as GH-5, 6, 7, 43, 45, and hemicellulose, such as GH-2, 10, 11, 30, 43, were found to be highly expressed in SEB conditions. Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO) classified as auxiliary activity families AA9 (GH61), CE (1, 4, 8, 15, 16), PL (1, 3, 4, 20) and GT (1, 2, 4, 8, 20, 35, 48) were also differentially expressed in this condition. Similarly, the most important enzymes related to biomass degradation, including endoxylanases, xyloglucanases, beta-xylosidases, LPMOs, alpha-arabinofuranosidases, cellobiohydrolases, endoglucanases and beta-glucosidases, were also identified in the secretome. Conclusions: This is the first report of a transcriptome and secretome experiment of Aspergillus fumigatus in the degradation of pretreated sugarcane bagasse. The results suggest that this strain employs important strategies for this complex degradation process. It was possible to identify a set of genes and proteins that might be applied in several biotechnology fields. This knowledge can be exploited for the improvement of 2G ethanol production by the rational design of enzymatic cocktails.

Retirement of Mary Traynor, executive editor of JXB (1995-2020)

JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BOTANY

Authors: Davies, Bill; Roberts, Jerry; Raines, Christine; Lunn, John E.

In July 2020 we bid a fond farewell to Mary Traynor, who is retiring as Executive Editor of the Journal of Experimental Botany, after 25 years' service as head of the journal's office in Lancaster. Mary joined the journal in 1995 while completing her PhD ('Root growth in drying soil: a role for ABA?) under the supervision of Bill Davies. Bill was Editor-in-Chief of JXB from 1995 to 2007 and appointed Mary to the post of Executive Editor (then called Assistant Editor), when the previous incumbent, Sarah Blackford, decided to follow a different career path. Bill recognised that Mary's enthusiasm for plant science and understanding of its value to society for addressing global challenges would be tremendous assets for both JXB and its parental organisation, the Society for Experimental Biology (SEB).

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