Protections against toxicity in the brains of rat with chronic fluorosis and primary neurons exposed to fluoride by resveratrol involves nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
JOURNAL OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY
Authors: Zeng, Xiao-Xiao; Deng, Jie; Xiang, Jie; Dong, Yang-Ting; Cao, Kun; Liu, Xian-Hong; Chen, Dan; Ran, Long-Yan; Yang, Ye; Guan, Zhi-Zhong
Protection of Resveratrol (RSV) against the neurotoxicity induced by high level of fluoride was investigated. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and their offspring, as well as cultures of primary neurons were divided randomly into four groups: untreated (control); treated with 50 mg RSV/kg/ (once daily by gavage) or (20 M in the cultured medium); exposed to 50 ppm F- in drinking water or 4 mmol/l in the cultured medium; and exposed to fluoride then RSV as above. The adult rats were treated for 7 months and the offspring sacrificed at 28 days of age; the cultured neurons for 48 h. For general characterization, dental fluorosis was assessed and the fluoride content of the urine measured (by fluoride-electrode) in the rates and the survival of cultured neurons monitored with the CCK-8 test. The spatial learning and memory of rats were assessed with the Morris water maze test. The levels of alpha 7 and alpha 4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) were quantified by Western blotting; and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 assayed biochemically. The results showed that chronic fluorosis resulted in the impaired learning and memory in rats and their offspring, and more oxidative stress in both rat brains and cultured neurons, which may be associated the lower levels of alpha 7 and alpha 4 nAChR subunits. Interestingly, RSV attenuated all of these toxic effects by fluorosis, indicating that protection against the neurotoxicity of fluoride by RSV might be in mechanism involved enhancing the expressions of these nAChRs.
Resveratrol Inhibits Ischemia-Induced Myocardial Senescence Signals and NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation
OXIDATIVE MEDICINE AND CELLULAR LONGEVITY
Authors: Feng, Hong; Mou, Shan-qi; Li, Wen-jing; Zhang, Nan; Zhou, Zi-ying; Ding, Wen; Bian, Zhou-Yan; Liao, Hai-han
Aims. The aim of this study was to investigate whether resveratrol (RSV) could ameliorate ischemia- and hypoxia-associated cardiomyocyte apoptosis and injury via inhibiting senescence signaling and inflammasome activation.Materials and Methods. Mice were treated with RSV by gastric tube (320 mg/kg/day) or vehicle one week before left coronary artery ligation or sham surgery until the end of the experiments. After pressure-volume loop analysis, mouse hearts were harvested for histopathological (including PSR, TTC, TUNEL staining, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence) and molecular analysis by western blotting and RT-PCR. In addition, neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs), cardiac fibroblasts (CFs), and macrophages were isolated forin vitroexperiments.Key Findings. RSV treatment decreased mortality and improved cardiac hemodynamics. RSV inhibited the expression of senescence markers (p53, p16, and p19), inflammasome markers (NLRP3 and Cas1 p20), and nuclear translocation of NF-kappa B, hence alleviating infarction area, fibrosis, and cell apoptosis. RSV also inhibited expression of interleukin- (IL-) 1 beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and IL-18in vivo. Inin vitroexperiment, RSV prevented hypoxia-induced NRCM senescence and apoptosis. After inhibition of sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) by EX27, RSV failed to inhibit p53 acetylation and expression. Moreover, RSV could inhibit expression of NLRP3 and caspase 1 p20 in NRCMs, CFs, and macrophages, respectively, in in vitro experiments.Significance. Our findings revealed that RSV protected against ischemia-induced mouse heart injury in vivo and hypoxia-induced NRCM injury in vitro via regulating Sirt1/p53-mediated cell senescence and inhibiting NLRP3-mediated inflammasome activation.