Factors influencing the production of the antioxidant hydroxytyrosol during alcoholic fermentation: Yeast strain, initial tyrosine concentration and initial must
LWT-FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Authors: Rebollo-Romero, Inmaculada; Fernandez-Cruz, Edwin; Carrasco-Galan, Fernando; Valero, Eva; Cantos-Villar, Emma; Cerezo, Ana B.; Troncoso, Ana M.; Garcia-Parrilla, M. Carmen
Hydroxytyrosol is well known for its potent antioxidant activity and anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, cardioprotective and neuroprotective properties. Main food sources are olive oil (formed from the hydrolysis of oleuropein) and wine. One possible explanation to its origin in wines is the synthesis from tyrosol, which in turn is produced from the Ehrlich pathway by yeasts. This work aims to explore the factors that could increase the content as the strain of yeast, the initial tyrosine concentrations as precursor and the effect of synthetic and sterilized natural grape musts. Alcoholic fermentations in synthetic must showed that hydroxytyrosol is produced by all the yeast strains under study. Commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts were those which produced higher concentrations, being the Red Fruit strain the biggest producer (6.12 ng/mL). Once the strain was selected, alcoholic fermentations were performed in synthetic must, with different tyrosine concentrations. The amount of hydroxytyrosol did not increase in a proportional way as tyrosine does. On the other hand, higher concentrations of hydroxytyrosol were obtained in natural grape musts (10.46 ng/mL) than in synthetic must (4.03 ng/mL). This work confirms the capacity of winemaking yeasts to produce the bioactive hydroxytyrosol.
High Complexity and Degree of Genetic Variation in Brettanomyces bruxellensis Population
GENOME BIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION
Authors: Gounot, Jean-Sebastien; Neuveglise, Cecile; Freel, Kelle C.; Devillers, Hugo; Piskur, Jure; Friedrich, Anne; Schacherer, Joseph
Genome-wide characterization of genetic variants of a large population of individuals within the same species is essential to have a deeper insight into its evolutionary history as well as the genotype-phenotype relationship. Population genomic surveys have been performed in multiple yeast species, including the two model organisms, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In this context, we sought to characterize at the population level the Brettanomyces bruxellensis yeast species, which is a major cause of wine spoilage and can contribute to the specific flavor profile of some Belgium beers. We have completely sequenced the genome of 53 B. bruxellensis strains isolated worldwide. The annotation of the reference genome allowed us to define the gene content of this species. As previously suggested, our genomic data clearly highlighted that genetic diversity variation is related to ploidy level, which is variable in the B. bruxellensis species. Genomes are punctuated by multiple loss-of-heterozygosity regions, whereas aneuploidies as well as segmental duplications are uncommon. Interestingly, triploid genomes are more prone to gene copy number variation than diploids. Finally, the pangenome of the species was reconstructed and was found to be small with few accessory genes compared with S. cerevisiae. The pangenome is composed of 5,409 ORFs (open reading frames) among which 5,106 core ORFs and 303 ORFs that are variable within the population. All these results highlight the different trajectories of species evolution and consequently the interest of establishing population genomic surveys in more populations.