Investigating the efficacy of monovalent and tetravalent dengue vaccine formulations against DENV-4 challenge in AG129 mice
Authors: Fuchs, Jeremy; Chu, Haiyan; O'Day, Peter; Pyles, Richard; Bourne, Nigel; Das, Subash C.; Milligan, Gregg N.; Barrett, Alan D. T.; Partidos, Charalambos D.; Osorio, Jorge E.
Dengue (DEN) is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease, with a major impact on global health and economics, caused by four serologically and distinct viruses termed DENV-1 to DENV-4. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine to prevent DEN. We have developed a live attenuated tetravalent DENV vaccine candidate (TDV) (formally known as DENVax) that has shown promise in preclinical and clinical studies and elicits neutralizing antibody responses to all four DENVs. As these responses are lowest to DENV-4 we have used the AG129 mouse model to investigate the immunogenicity of monovalent TDV4 or tetravalent TDV vaccines, and their efficacy against lethal DENV-4 challenge. Since the common backbone of TDV is based on an attenuated DENV-2 strain (TDV-2) we also tested the efficacy of TDV-2 against DENV-4 challenge. Single doses of the tetravalent or monovalent vaccines elicited neutralizing antibodies, anti-NS1 antibodies, and cellular responses to both envelope and nonstructural proteins. All vaccinated animals were protected against challenge at 60 days post-immunization, whereas all control animals died. Investigation of DENV-4 viremias post-challenge showed that only the control animals had high viremias on day 3 post-challenge, whereas vaccinated mice had no detectable viremia. Overall, these data highlight the excellent immunogenicity and efficacy profile of our candidate dengue vaccine in AG129 mice. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A Genome-Wide CRISPR-Cas9 Screen Identifies the Dolichol-Phosphate Mannose Synthase Complex as a Host Dependency Factor for Dengue Virus Infection
JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY
Authors: Labeau, Athena; Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Hafirassou, Mohamed-Lamine; Bonnet-Madin, Lucie; Tessier, Sarah; Zamborlini, Alessia; Dupre, Thierry; Seta, Nathalie; Schwartz, Olivier; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Delaugerre, Constance; Amara, Ali; Meertens, Laurent
Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus responsible for dengue disease, a major human health concern for which no specific therapies are available. Like other viruses, DENV relies heavily on the host cellular machinery for productive infection. In this study, we performed a genome-wide CRISPRCas9 screen using haploid HAP1 cells to identify host genes important for DENV infection. We identified DPM1 and -3, two subunits of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident dolichol-phosphate mannose synthase (DPMS) complex, as host dependency factors for DENV and other related flaviviruses, such as Zika virus (ZIKV). The DPMS complex catalyzes the synthesis of dolichol-phosphate mannose (DPM), which serves as mannosyl donor in pathways leading to N-glycosylation, glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor biosynthesis, and C- or O-mannosylation of proteins in the ER lumen. Mutation in the DXD motif of DPM1, which is essential for its catalytic activity, abolished DPMS-mediated DENV infection. Similarly, genetic ablation of ALG3, a mannosyltransferase that transfers mannose to lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO), rendered cells poorly susceptible to DENV. We also established that in cells deficient for DPMS activity, viral RNA amplification is hampered and truncated oligosaccharides are transferred to the viral prM and E glycoproteins, affecting their proper folding. Overall, our study provides new insights into the host-dependent mechanisms of DENV infection and supports current therapeutic approaches using glycosylation inhibitors to treat DENV infection. IMPORTANCE Dengue disease, which is caused by dengue virus (DENV), has emerged as the most important mosquito-borne viral disease in humans and is a major global health concern. DENV encodes only few proteins and relies on the host cell machinery to accomplish its life cycle. The identification of the host factors important for DENV infection is needed to propose new targets for antiviral intervention. Using a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screen, we identified DPM1 and -3, two subunits of the DPMS complex, as important host factors for the replication of DENV as well as other related viruses such as Zika virus. We established that DPMS complex plays dual roles during viral infection, both regulating viral RNA replication and promoting viral structural glycoprotein folding/stability. These results provide insights into the host molecules exploited by DENV and other flaviviruses to facilitate their life cycle.