Rabbit plasminogen reference serum (DAGA-681)

Rabbit plasminogen reference serum, native protein

Alternative Names
Rabbit; Plasminogen; Serum
Batch dependent - please inquire should you have specific requirements
0.1% Sodium Azide
Frozen -20°C
Antigen Description
Plasmin is an important enzyme present in blood that degrades many blood plasma proteins, including fibrin clots. The degradation of fibrin is termed fibrinolysis. In humans, the plasmin protein is encoded by the PLG gene.


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An Observational Study of the Pharmacokinetics of Surgeon-Performed Intercostal Nerve Blockade With Liposomal Bupivacaine for Posterior-Lateral Thoracotomy Analgesia


Authors: Manson, William C.; Blank, Randal S.; Martin, Linda W.; Alpert, Salome B.; Dobrzanski, Tomasz P.; Schneider, Eric B.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Durieux, Marcel E.

BACKGROUND: Intercostal nerve blocks with liposomal bupivacaine are commonly used for thoracic surgery pain management. However, dose scheduling is difficult because the pharmacokinetics of a single-dose intercostal injection of liposomal bupivacaine has never been investigated. The primary aim of this study was to assess the median time to peak plasma concentration (T-max) following a surgeon-administered, single-dose infiltration of 266 mg of liposomal bupivacaine as a posterior multilevel intercostal nerve block in patients undergoing posterolateral thoracotomy. METHODS: We chose a sample size of 15 adults for this prospective observational study. Intercostal injection of liposomal bupivacaine was considered time 0. Serum samples were taken at the following times: 5, 15, and 30 minutes, and 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours. The presence of sensory blockade, rescue pain medication, and pain level were recorded after the patient was able to answer questions. RESULTS: Forty patients were screened, and 15 patients were enrolled in the study. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) T-max was 24 (12) hours (confidence interval [CI], 19.5-28.5 hours) with a range of 15 minutes to 48 hours. The median (IQR) peak plasma concentration (C-max) was 0.6 (0.3) mu g/mL (CI, 00.45-0.74 mu g/mL) in a range of 0.3-1.2. The serum bupivacaine concentration was undetectable (<0.2 mu g/mL) at 96 hours in all patients. There was significant variability in reported pain scores and rescue opioid medication across the 15 patients. More than 50% of patients had return of normal chest wall sensation at 48 hours. All patients had resolution of nerve blockade at 96 hours. No patients developed local anesthetic toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: This study of the pharmacokinetics of liposomal bupivacaine following multilevel intercostal nerve blockade demonstrates significant variability and delay in systemic absorption of the drug. Peak serum concentration occurred at 48 hours or sooner in all patients. The serum bupivacaine concentration always remained well below the described toxicity threshold (2 mu g/mL) during the 96-hour study period.

Study on evaluation of toxicology and quality control of Yimusake tablet


Authors: Zhai, Xin; Pang, Kejian; Li, Huifang; Yao, Xincheng; Wang, Ziyue; Tang, Ping; Tang, Hui

Ethnopharmacological relevance: The Yimusake tablet (YMSK-T) is a type of Xinjiang Uygur Medicine, which affects curing diseases of impotence and premature ejaculation. It has remarkable pharmacological effects that mainly involve improving the number and shape of smooth muscle cells in the corpus cavernosum and enhancing the relaxation and contraction function of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. Aim of the study: The YMSK-T prescription, which consists of 11 traditional herbs, has significant pharmacological effects, however the evaluation of toxicology and quality control of the preparation has not yet been reported. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the toxicology and quality control of YMSK-T to ensure its safety and effectiveness in clinical applications. Materials and methods: Male rats were divided into three groups and were given continuous gavage administration of high, medium and low concentrations of YMSK-T. To determine hematopoietic parameters, orbital blood was collected at regular intervals. At termination of the experiment, rats were dissected for histopathological examination. According to the function of the prescription medicinal materials, seven active components were selected for content determination under the same chromatographic condition of using 0.2% aqueous phosphoric acid (solvent A) and acetonitrile (solvent B) with a 40 min post time: 0-13 min, 20%-p30% B; 13-26 min, 30%-p72% B; 26-38 min, 72%-p92% B; 38-40 min, 92%-p96% B. The column was maintained at 25 degrees C and the total sample injection was 10 mu L. Results: Our data showed that using a large dose (400X the dosage used in humans) of YMSK-T resulted in myocardium and liver damage, and eventually death of the rats. At sub-chronic toxicity, no significant differences were observed among indexes about relative organ weight, hematology, serum biochemistry and histopathological examination, and rats behaved normally. Our results also demonstrated that the YMSK-T dosage used was not toxic in the normal range. The linearity of each component was sufficient (correlation coefficients > 0.9997). Moreover, the relative standard deviations of precision, repeatability, stability, and recovery were less than 2.0%, which showed that the method for determination of content was stable and reliable. Conclusions: YMSK-T has been found to be relatively safe in a rat model, and the method of content determination can be used for quality control of YMSK-T. Toxicology and quality control studies indicated that, the drug is safe and effective for clinical application.

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