Astragalus fasciculifolius manna; antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in mice
Authors: Shahrani, Mehrdad; Asgharzadeh, Najmeh; Torki, Akram; Asgharian, Shirin; Lorigooini, Zahra
Introduction: Inflammation is one of the body's natural defence mechanisms alongside the cells or tissues damage due to various stimuli or infections. Pain is one of the greatest common symbols associated with different diseases. Therefore, researchers are trying to find new medications that bring patients relief with fewer side effects. Herbal medicine has been used for periods to treat acute and chronic pains. Objectives: This research evaluated the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antioxidant properties of Astragalus fasciculifolius manna extract. Materials and Methods: The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potency of the extract were determined by xylene test and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Results: Astragalus fasciculifolius manna extract at doses of 400, 800 and 1200 mg/kg significantly reduced acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin-induced paw licking (late and early phase) but did not affect mechanical hyperalgesia caused by heat. Moreover, naloxone failed to inhibit the antinociceptive activity of the extract. The extract of A. fasciculifolius manna also exhibited high anti-inflammatory activity against xylene induced ear edema. Treatment of mice with the extract did not improve serum antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: Results of the present research showed that A. fasciculifolius manna can prevent pain and inflammation because of the presence of high amount of saponin.
Angiotensin II Type-1 Receptor Antibodies Are Associated With Active Allograft Dysfunction Following Pediatric Liver Transplantation
Authors: Wozniak, Laura J.; Hickey, Michelle J.; Chan, Alvin P.; Venick, Robert S.; Farmer, Douglas G.; Busuttil, Ronald W.; Reed, Elaine F.; McDiarmid, Sue V.
Background. Angiotensin II type-1 receptor (AT1R) antibodies have been associated with rejection and allograft loss in solid organ transplantation and may act synergistically with HLA donor-specific antibodies (DSA). Our aims were to assess the prevalence of AT1R antibodies and determine if they were associated with allograft dysfunction in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Methods. We performed a retrospective, cross-sectional study of HLA DSA and AT1R antibodies in 2 cohorts of pediatric liver transplant recipients: a stable control cohort with normal allograft function (n = 70) who consented to have serum samples collected for research purposes during a routine clinic visit and a cohort with active allograft dysfunction (n = 9) whose serum samples were collected as part of clinical care. Results. AT1R antibodies >17 U/mL were detected in 29% of stable control patients and 89% of patients with active allograft dysfunction (P = 0.001). In stable control patients, AT1R antibodies were associated with younger age at transplant (P = 0.010), younger age at time of sample collection (P < 0.001), shorter interval since transplant (P = 0.090), and presence of HLA DSA (P = 0.003). AT1R antibodies in stable control patients were not associated with rejection or allograft loss. However, AT1R antibodies combined with HLA DSA in patients with active allograft dysfunction were associated with rejection and allograft loss. Conclusions. Our results suggest that AT1R antibodies are more common in patients with active allograft dysfunction and may be a risk factor for worse outcomes. Further research is needed to longitudinally assess the clinical impact of HLA DSA and AT1R antibodies.