Pig fibrinogen reference serum (DAGA-675)

Pig fibrinogen reference serum, native protein

Pig, Porcine
Alternative Names
Pig; Fibrinogen; Serum
Batch dependent - please inquire should you have specific requirements
0.1% Sodium Azide
Frozen -20°C
Antigen Description
Fibrinogen (factor I) is a glycoprotein in vertebrates that helps in the formation of blood clots. It consists of a linear array of three nodules held together by a very thin thread which is estimated to have a diameter between 8 and 15 Angstrom.


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TAK-242 Attenuates Crush Injury Induced Acute Kidney Injury through Inhibiting TLR4/NF-kappa B Signaling Pathways in Rats


Authors: Wang, Jinxiang; Chen, Zhiguo; Hou, Shike; Liu, Ziquan; Lv, Qi

Background: To investigate if toll-like receptor (TLR) 4/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) signaling pathways mediated crush injury induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats, and if TAK-242 (a specific inhibitor of TLR4) attenuates the injury through inhibiting the signaling pathways. Methods: This study was divided into two parts: (1) Establish the crush injury model: 50 rats were randomly divided into control group and four crush injury groups (n = 10/group). Crush injury groups were given 3kg pressure for eight hours and were sacrificed at the time points of 0h, 6h, 12h, and 24h after relieving pressure. And (2) Select the most obvious injury group (12h group) for drug intervention group. Thirty rats were randomly divided into control group, 12h group, and 12h+TAK-242 group (n = 10/group). Two parts detection were as follows: pathological changes of kidney tissues were observed in Haematoxylin and Eosin (HE) staining. Serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), myoglobin (Mb), and blood potassium were examined by automatic biochemical analysis instrument. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The TLR4 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA), TLR4, and P65 were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), western blot, immunohistochemistry staining. Results: Compared with the control group, kidney tissues were damaged in crush injury groups, and most obvious in the 12h group. The level of serum creatinine, BUN, Mb, blood potassium, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and TLR4mRNA were increased in the crush injury groups and significantly increased in the 12h group (P <.05). The TLR4 and P65 were significantly increased in the 12h group (P <.05). Compared with the 12h group, kidney tissue damage was significantly reduced in the TAK-242 group (P <.05). The level of serum creatinine, BUN, Mb, blood potassium, IL-6, TNF-alpha, TLR4mRNA, TLR4, and P65 in the TAK-242 group were significantly reduced (P <.05). Conclusion: The present findings conclude that TLR4/NF-kappa B signaling pathways mediated crush injury induced AKI in rats, and TAK-242 attenuates the injury through inhibiting the signaling pathways.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure results in altered CRH, reproductive, and thyroid hormone concentrations during human pregnancy


Authors: Cathey, Amber L.; Watkins, Deborah J.; Rosario, Zaira Y.; Vega, Carmen M. Velez; Loch-Caruso, Rita; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.; Cordero, Jose F.; Meeker, John D.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are byproducts of incomplete combustion reactions and are ubiquitous in the environment, leading to widespread human exposure via inhalation and ingestion pathways. PAHs have been implicated as endocrine disrupting compounds in previous animal and in vitro studies, but human studies are currently lacking. Pregnant women and their developing fetuses are particularly susceptible populations to environmental contaminants, in part because alterations in hormone physiology during gestation can have adverse consequences on the health of the pregnancy. We utilized data on 659 pregnant women from the PROTECT longitudinal birth cohort in Puerto Rico to assess associations between repeated measures of 3 urinary hydroxylated PAH (OH-PAH) metabolites and 9 serum hormones during gestation. Urine samples were collected at 3 study visits (median gestational ages of 18, 22, and 26 weeks at each visit, respectively) and serum samples were collected at the first and third study visits. Linear mixed effects models were used to ascertain longitudinal associations between OH-PAHs and hormones, and sensitivity analyses were employed to assess potential nonlinearity and differences in associations on the basis of fetal sex and timing of biomarker measurement. Among the multiple positive associations we observed between OH-PAHs and CRH, estriol, progesterone, T3, and the ratio of T3 to T4, and inverse associations with testosterone, the most notable are a 24.3% increase (95% Cl: 13.0, 36.7) in CRH with an interquartile range (1QR) increase in 1-hydroxyphenanthrene and a 17.2% decrease (95% CI: 8.13, 25.4) in testosterone with an 1QR increase in 1-hydroxynapthalene. Many associations observed were dependent on fetal sex, and some relationships showed evidence of nonlinearity. These findings demonstrate the importance of studying PAH exposures during pregnancy and highlight the potential complexity of their impacts on the physiology of human pregnancy. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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