The prevalence and risk factors of liver fluke infection in Mexican horses, donkeys and mules in tropical and temperate regions
Authors: Villa-Mancera, Abel; Reynoso-Palomar, Alejandro
The objective of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence ofFasciola hepaticainfection in horses, donkeys and mules from different climate regions in two states of Mexico. A total of 594 serum samples were analysed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with excretory-secretory (E/S) products as the antigen. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of serum IgG ELISA were 100% and 97.2%, respectively. We collected data using a questionnaire. The overall prevalence of the parasite in equids between May 2018 and April 2019 was 13.1% (78 out of 594). The highest prevalence was found in mules (17.9%), followed by that in donkeys (13.9%) and horses (10.4%). In addition, the highest percentage of positive equines was detected in samples from the tropical climate (17.5%). The identification of risk factors was assessed by bivariate logistic regression analysis. Mules had 8.608 times higher risk forF. hepaticainfections as compared with horses (odds ratio (OR) 8.608; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.809-26.377), while the OR for 6-10-year-old equines was 93.375 compared with that of young equines (<= 5 years old) (OR 93.375; 95% CI: 11.075-787.239). Likewise, tropical climate equines had 83.7% increased odds for fasciolosis (OR 1.83).
Survey of the current status of subclinical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
JOURNAL OF INFECTION AND CHEMOTHERAPY
Authors: Matsuba, Ikuro; Hatori, Nobuo; Koido, Norihiko; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Ebara, Futoshi; Matsuzawa, Yoko; Nishikawa, Tetsuo; Kunishima, Tomoyuki; Degawa, Hisakazu; Nishikawa, Masanori; Ono, Yoshiaki; Kanamori, Akira
Objectives: We investigated relationships between subclinical COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) and background factors. Methods: We determined SARS-CoV-2 antibody (IgG) prevalence in 1603 patients, doctors, and nurses in 65 medical institutions in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan and investigated their background factors. Antibodies (IgG) against SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed by Immunochromatographic test. Results: The 39 subjects (2.4%) were found to be IgG antibody-positive: 29 in the patient group (2.9%), 10 in the doctor/nurse group (2.0%), and 0 in the control group. After adjustment for age, sex, and the antibody prevalence in the control group, antibody prevalence was 2.7% in the patient group and 2.1% in the doctor/nurse group. There was no significant difference between the antibody-positive subjects and the antibody-negative subjects in any background factors investigated including overseas travel, contact with overseas travelers, presence/absence of infected individuals in the living area, use of trains 5 times a week or more, BCG vaccination, and use of ACE inhibitor and ARB. Conclusions: Antibody prevalence in the present survey at medical institution is higher than that in Tokyo and in Osaka measured by the government suggesting that subclinical infections are occurring more frequently than expected. No background factor that influenced antibody-positive status due to subclinical infection was identified. (c) 2020 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).