First-principles Study on the Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production of a Novel Two-dimensional Zr2CO2/InS Heterostructure
JOURNAL OF INORGANIC MATERIALS
Authors: Zhao Yupeng; He Yong; Zhang Min; Shi Junjie
Electronic structure and photocatalytic performance of 2D novel Zr2CO2/InS heterostructure was systematically investigated using first principle calculations. The calculated results demonstrate that the Zr2CO2/InS heterostructure is a direct bandgap semiconductor with a lattice mismatch less than 3% and a formation energy of -0.49 eV, indicating a stable structure. Band gap of the Zr2CO2/InS heterostructure is 1.96 eV, which should have a wide visible light absorption range, and the absorption coefficient is up to 10(5) cm(-1). The heterostructure has a typical type-II band alignment, and its valence band and conduction band offsets are 1.24 and 0.17 eV, respectively, demonstrating the transfer of photo-generated electrons from Zr2CO2 layer to InS layer and vice versa for holes, which indicates that the electrons and holes can be separated effectively in space. In addition, InS is an indirect band gap semiconductor material, which can further reduce the recombination of electrons and holes. Therefore, the novel Zr2CO2/InS heterostructure is a potential visible-light photocatalyst.
Treatment of Fecal Incontinence With a Rechargeable Sacral Neuromodulation System: Efficacy, Clinical Outcome, and Ease of Use-Six-Month Follow-Up
Authors: Jottard, Katleen; Van den Broeck, Sylvie; Komen, Niels; Bruyninx, Luc; De Wachter, Stefan
Objective Sacral neuromodulation is an effective treatment for fecal incontinence (FI) after conservative treatments have failed. A new rechargeable sacral neuromodulation system (r-SNM) includes a rechargeable implantable neurostimulator (INS). No data is available of the use of this technology in patients with fecal incontinence. Materials and Methods Fifteen patients with FI were implanted with the Axonics rechargeable SNM system in a single-stage implant procedure and prospectively followed. Primary outcome was fecal incontinence episodes at four weeks and six months measured with stools diary. Success was defined as at least 50% improvement of fecal incontinence episodes. Additionally, quality of life and ease of use were evaluated. Results At four weeks, 13 participants (87%) were test responders based on >= 50% reduction in FI episodes as documented on their bowel diary. Weekly FI episodes decreased from a median (25%-75% range) of 8 (5.8-20.3) at baseline to a median of 1.5 (0.4-4.5) at four weeks (p = 0.001), and 1.5 (0-2.6) at six months (p = 0.001), corresponding to 75% and 79% reduction in weekly FI episodes. Of the 13 subjects having >= 50% reduction in FI episodes at four weeks, 12 (PP = 92%) were therapy responders at six months. There were no unanticipated device or procedure-related adverse events. Mean time to recharge the system was 37 +/- 3 min once or twice per week. All patients were moderately or very satisfied with the system and its effect. Conclusions The r-SNM system provides safe and effective therapy in patients with FI at six months.