Measurement of the Flow Field Generated by Multicopter Propellers
Authors: Czyz, Zbigniew; Karpinski, Pawel; Stryczniewicz, Wit
This paper presents the results of research on the airflow around a multirotor aircraft. The research consisted of the analysis of the velocity field using particle image velocimetry. Based on the tests carried out in a wind tunnel, the distribution of the velocity and its components in the vertical plane passing through the propeller axis were determined for several values of the angle of attack of the tested object for two values of airflow velocity inside the tunnel, i.e., v(wt) = 0 m/s and v(wt) = 12.5 m/s. Determining the velocity value as a function of the coordinates of the adopted reference system allowed for defining the range of impact of the horizontal propellers and the fuselage of the research object itself. The tests allowed for quantitative and qualitative analyses of the airflow through the horizontal rotor. Particular attention was paid to the impact of the airflow and the angle of attack on the obtained velocity field distributions.
Internal shear layers and edges of uniform momentum zones in a turbulent pipe flow
JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS
Authors: Gul, M.; Elsinga, G. E.; Westerweel, J.
This paper provides an experimental investigation on the internal shear layers and the edges of the uniform momentum zones (UMZs) in a turbulent pipe flow. The time-resolved stereoscopic particle image velocimetry data are acquired in the cross-section of the pipe, and span the range of Reynolds number . In the first part of the study, internal shear layers are detected using a three-dimensional detection method, and both their geometry as well as their fingerprint in the flow statistics are examined. Three-dimensional conditional mean flow analysis revealed a strong low-speed region beneath the average shear layers. This low-speed region is associated with positive wall-normal fluctuations, and it is accompanied by two swirling motions having opposite signs on either side in the azimuthal direction. Moreover, the shear layers are stretched by the two opposite azimuthal motions. In the second part of the study, the shear layers are treated as the continuous edges of the UMZs, which are detected using the histogram method following Adrian et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 422, 2000, pp. 1-54) and de Silva et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 786, 2016, pp. 309-331). For this part, two different orientation of the planes are used, i.e. the wall-normal-streamwise plane and the wall-normal-spanwise plane (cross-section of the pipe). Comparison of the detected structures shows that the shear layers mostly overlap with a UMZ edge (in either plane).