Peroxisomal gene and protein expression increase in response to a high-lipid challenge in human skeletal muscle
METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL
Authors: Huang, Tai-Yu; Zheng, Donghai; Hickner, Robert C.; Brault, Jeffrey J.; Cortright, Ronald N.
Peroxisomes are essential for lipid metabolism and disruption of liver peroxisomal function results in neonatal death. Little is known about how peroxisomal content and activity respond to changes in the lipid environment in human skeletal muscle (HSkM). Aims: We hypothesized and tested that increased peroxisomal gene/protein expression and functionality occur in HSkM as an adaptive response to lipid oversupply. Materials and methods: HSkM biopsies, derived from a total of sixty-two subjects, were collected for 1) examining correlations between peroxisomal proteins and intramyocellular lipid content (IMLC) as well as between peroxisomal functionality and IMLC, 2) assessing peroxisomal gene expression in response to acute- or 7-day high fat meal (HFM), and in human tissue derived primary myotubes for 3) treating with high fatty acids to induce peroxisomal adaptions. IMLC were measured by both biochemical analyses and fluorescent staining. Peroxisomal membrane protein PMP70 and biogenesis gene (PEX) expression were assessed using western blotting and realtime qRT-PCR respectively. 1-C-14 radiolabeled lignocerate and palmitate oxidation assays were performed for peroxisomal and mitochondrial functionality respectively. Results: 1) Under fasting conditions, HSkMtissue demonstrated a significant correlation (P << 0.05) between IMCL and the peroxisomal biogenesis factor 19 (PEX19) protein as well as between lipid content and palmitate and lignocerate complete oxidation. 2) Similarly, post-HFM, additional PEX genes (Pex19, PEX11A, and PEX5) were significantly (P << 0.05) upregulated. 3) Increments in PMP70, carnitine octanoyl transferase (CrOT), PGC-1 alpha, and ERR alpha alpha mRNA were observed post-fatty acid incubation in HSkM cells. PMP70 protein was significantly (P << 0.05) elevated 48-h post lipid treatment. Conclusions: These results are the first to associate IMLC with peroxisomal gene/protein expression and function in HSkM suggesting an adaptive role for peroxisomes in lipid metabolism in this tissue. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
New insights into the distribution, protein abundance and subcellular localisation of the endogenous peroxisomal biogenesis proteins PEX3 and PEX19 in different organs and cell types of the adult mouse
Authors: Colasante, Claudia; Chen, Jiangping; Ahlemeyer, Barbara; Bonilla-Martinez, Rocio; Karnati, Srikanth; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline
Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles mainly involved in ROS and lipid metabolism. Their abundance, protein composition and metabolic function vary depending on the cell type and adjust to different intracellular and environmental factors such as oxidative stress or nutrition. The biogenesis and proliferation of these important organelles are regulated by proteins belonging to the peroxin (PEX) family. PEX3, an integral peroxisomal membrane protein, and the cytosolic shuttling receptor PEX19 are thought to be responsible for the early steps of peroxisome biogenesis and assembly of their matrix protein import machinery. Recently, both peroxins were suggested to be also involved in the autophagy of peroxisomes (pexophagy). Despite the fact that distribution and intracellular abundance of these proteins might regulate the turnover of the peroxisomal compartment in a cell type-specific manner, a comprehensive analysis of the endogenous PEX3 and PEX19 distribution in different organs is still missing. In this study, we have therefore generated antibodies against endogenous mouse PEX3 and PEX19 and analysed their abundance and subcellular localisation in various mouse organs, tissues and cell types and compared it to the one of three commonly used peroxisomal markers (PEX14, ABCD3 and catalase). Our results revealed that the abundance of PEX3, PEX19, PEX14, ABCD3 and catalase strongly varies in the analysed organs and cell types, suggesting that peroxisome abundance, biogenesis and matrix protein import are independently regulated. We further found that in some organs, such as heart and skeletal muscle, the majority of the shuttling receptor PEX19 is bound to the peroxisomal membrane and that a strong variability exists in the cell type-specific ratio of cytosol-and peroxisome-associated PEX19. In conclusion, our results indicate that peroxisomes in various cell types are heterogeneous with regards to their matrix, membrane and biogenesis proteins.