This peptide was derived from HIV-1 vpu.
Please see the vial label for concentration
2-8°C short term, -20°C long term
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a member of the retrovirus family) that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. HIV infects vital cells in the human immune system such as helper T cells (specifically CD4+ T cells), macrophages, and dendritic cells. HIV infection leads to low levels of CD4+ T cells through three main mechanisms: First, direct viral killing of infected cells; second, increased rates of apoptosis in infected cells; and third, killing of infected CD4+ T cells by CD8 cytotoxic lymphocytes that recognize infected cells. When CD4+ T cell numbers decline below a critical level, cell-mediated immunity is lost, and the body becomes progressively more susceptible to opportunistic infections.
Vpu is a HIV gene. Vpu stands for "Viral Protein U". Vpu is involved in viral budding, enhancing virion release from the cell by counteracting BST2 (also known as tetherin). In the absence of vpu, tetherin binds to the viral envelope and ties it to the cell membrane and other viral particles, impeding release of the viral particles. Additionally, Vpu targets CD4 in the ER for degradation (similar to the activity of Nef (protein) on the cell membrane). It can be found in HIV-1 but not in HIV-2. The Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) Vpu protein acts in the degradation of CD4 in the endoplasmic reticulum and in the enhancement of virion release from the plasma membrane of infected cells. It is found in the membranes of infected cells, but not the virus particles themselves.
Human immunodeficiency virus; HIV; Human immunodeficiency virus 1; Lentivirus; Retroviridae; Vpu; Viral Protein U; Vpu protein