Prognostic value of immune scores in the microenvironment of colorectal cancer
Authors: Yuan, Wenliang; Cai, Wei; Huang, Xiao; Peng, Sihua
Cancer immunotherapy has become an important means of cancer treatment; however, the complex composition and heterogeneity of the colorectal cancer (CRC) microenvironment pose a huge challenge to cancer immunotherapy. Using data downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas database, the differences in the microenvironment between cases with low and high immune scores were examined at the multiomics level using bioinformatics approaches. It was revealed that the samples with high immune scores had good cytolytic immune responses and relatively abundant stromal cells, as well as significant infiltration of 22 immune cell subsets and a high non-synonymous mutation burden and neoantigen burden. All of these characteristics contribute to a good prognosis. To better understand the impact of immune-related genes on prognosis, differentially expressed genes between the low and high immune score samples were identified and it was concluded that serpin family Emember 1 (SERPINE1) and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) may be potential therapeutic targets. The relationship between the immune score and the infiltration of 22 immune cells and the difference in SERPINE1 expression were verified by analyzing the GSE17536 and GSE21510 data sets downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The present study analyzed the unique properties of immune cells in the CRC microenvironment, which are of great significance for understanding CRC immune mechanism and may also provide novel ideas for the targeted design of cancer immunotherapy.
Multiple Sex Chromosomes and Evolutionary Relationships in Amazonian Catfishes: The Outstanding Model of the Genus Harttia (Siluriformes: Loricariidae)
Authors: Sassi, Francisco de M. C.; Deon, Geize A.; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Vicari, Marcelo R.; Bertollo, Luiz A. C.; Liehr, Thomas; de Oliveira, Ezequiel Aguiar; Cioffi, Marcelo B.
The armored Harttia catfishes present great species diversity and remarkable cytogenetic variation, including different sex chromosome systems. Here we analyzed three new species, H. duriventris, H. villasboas and H. rondoni, using both conventional and molecular cytogenetic techniques (Giemsa-staining and C-banding), including the mapping of repetitive DNAs using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) experiments. Both H. duriventris and H. villasboas have 2n = female 56/male 55 chromosomes, and an X1X1X2X2 /X1X2Y sex chromosome system, while a proto or neo-XY system is proposed for H. rondoni (2n = 54 female male). Single motifs of 5S and 18S rDNA occur in all three species, with the latter being also mapped in the sex chromosomes. The results confirm the general evolutionary trend that has been noticed for the genus: an extensive variation on their chromosome number, single sites of rDNA sequences and the occurrence of multiple sex chromosomes. Comparative genomic analyses with another congeneric species, H. punctata, reveal that the X1X2Y sex chromosomes of these species share the genomic contents, indicating a probable common origin. The remarkable karyotypic variation, including sex chromosomes systems, makes Harttia a suitable model for evolutionary studies focusing on karyotype differentiation and sex chromosome evolution among lower vertebrates.