Upper-room ultraviolet air disinfection might help to reduce COVID-19 transmission in buildings: a feasibility study
Authors: Beggs, Clive B.; Avital, Eldad J.
As the world's economies come out of the lockdown imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic, there is an urgent need for technologies to mitigate COVID-19 transmission in confined spaces such as buildings. This feasibility study looks at one such technology, upper-room ultraviolet (UV) air disinfection, that can be safely used while humans are present in the room space, and which has already proven its efficacy as an intervention to inhibit the transmission of airborne diseases such as measles and tuberculosis. Using published data from various sources, it is shown that the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the causative agent of COVID-19, is highly likely to be susceptible to UV-C damage when suspended in air, with a UV susceptibility constant likely to be in the region 0.377-0.590 m(2)/J, similar to that for other aerosolised coronaviruses. As such, the UV-C flux required to disinfect the virus is expected to be acceptable and safe for upper-room applications. Through analysis of expected and worst-case scenarios, the efficacy of the upper-room UV-C approach for reducing COVID-19 transmission in confined spaces (with moderate but sufficient ceiling height) is demonstrated. Furthermore, it is shown that with SARS-CoV-2, it should be possible to achieve high equivalent air change rates using upper-room UV air disinfection, suggesting that the technology might be particularly applicable to poorly ventilated spaces.
Trends in the Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance of Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria in Mainland China, 2000-2019: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
FRONTIERS IN PUBLIC HEALTH
Authors: Zhou, Lei; Xu, Da; Liu, Hancan; Wan, Kanglin; Wang, Ruibai; Yang, Zaichang
Background:China is a high-burden country of tuberculosis. The proportion of diseases caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has increased, seriously affecting the prevention, control, and management of tuberculosis (TB) and posing a significant threat to human health. However, there is a lack of an organized monitoring system for NTM such as that used for tuberculosis. Comprehensive data on patient susceptibility, dominant species, and drug resistance profiles are needed to improve the treatment protocols and the management of NTM. Methods:Primary research reports of NTM clinical specimens from mainland China published between January 1, 2000 and May 31, 2019 were retrieved from four online resources (BIOSIS, Embase, PubMed, and Web of Science) and three Chinese medical literature databases (CNKI, Wanfang, and Vip) as the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Results:In total, 339 publications were included in the systematic review, 129 were used in the drug susceptibility analysis, and 95 were used in the meta-analysis. Traditional culture using Lowenstein-Jensen slants combined with P-nitrobenzene acid and thiophene-2-carboxylic acid hydrazine differential medium and proportional method was most commonly used for the isolation, identification, and drug susceptibility testing of NTM in China. The crude isolation rate for NTM among TB suspected cases was 4.66-5.78%, while the proportion of NTM amongMycobacteriumisolates was 11.57%.Mycobacterium abscessusandMycobacterium aviumcomplex were the most common clinical NTM species. NTM only showed general sensitivity to ethambutol, linezolid, clofazimine, amikacin, tobramycin, and clarithromycin. Conclusions:The prevalence of NTM in China has shown a decreasing trend.M. abscessuswas replaced as the dominant species byMycobacterium intracellulareover the course of the study. The geographic diversity of different species showed the effects of environmental and economic factors on the distribution of NTM and indicated that there were important factors still not identified. While there were only a limited number of antibiotics to which NTM showed any sensitivity, the drug resistance profiles of the isolates were highly variable and thus more caution should be taken when empirically treating NTM infection.