A study about the energy-momentum tensor of pure gravitational field part of matter
ACTA PHYSICA SINICA
Authors: Lou, TP
In this paper, the existing forms of matter is supposed to be divided into two parts, one is the pure matter part,and another is the pure gravitational field part. The two parts of existing forms of matter are corresponding to their energy-momentum tensors, respectively. So the total energy-momentum tensor of matter can be expressed as T-muv = T-muv((I)) + T-muv((II)) where T-muv((I)) and T-muv((II)) are energy-momentum tensors of pure matter part and pure gravitational field part, respectively. By analogy with the electromagnetic theory, a vector is defined as: omega(mu) equivalent to -c(2) g(mu0)/rootg(00), and an antisymmetric tensor is defined as: D-muv = partial derivative(omegamu)/partial derivativex(v) - partial derivativeomega(v)/partial derivativex(mu), so the energy-momentum tensor of the pure gravitational field part of the matter is supposed to be T-muv((II)) = (DmurhoDvrho - PP g(muv)D(alphabeta)D(alphabeta)/4)/4piG. The gravitational field equation which contains pure gravitational field part of matter can be expressed by R-muv - g(muv)R/2 = 8piG(Tmuv((I)) + T-muv((II)))/c(4). The theory of the gravitational field which contains the energy-momentum tensor of pure gravitational field part of matter can be used in an isolated globular symmetry for pure matter with mass M, which is time-independent, and the line-element of time-space for the out side of globular symmetry of pure matter can be obtained by ds(2) = - (1 - m/r)(-2)dr(2) - r(2)dtheta(2) - r(2)sin(2)thetadphi(2) + (1 - m/r)(2) c(2)dt(2), where m = GM/c(2).
Infection of Mice, Ferrets, and Rhesus Macaques with a Clinical Mumps Virus Isolate
JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY
Authors: Xu, Pei; Huang, Zhixiang; Gao, Xiudan; Michel, Frank J.; Hirsch, Gwen; Hogan, Robert J.; Sakamoto, Kaori; Ho, Wenzhe; Wu, Jianguo; He, Biao
In recent years, many mumps outbreaks have occurred in vaccinated populations worldwide. The reasons for these outbreaks are not clear. Animal models are needed to investigate the causes of outbreaks and to understand the pathogenesis of mumps virus (MuV). In this study, we have examined the infection of three animal models with an isolate of mumps virus from a recent outbreak (MuV-IA). We have found that while both ferrets and mice generated humoral and cellular immune responses to MuV-IA infection, no obvious signs of illness were observed in these animals; rhesus macaques were the most susceptible to MuV-IA infection. Infection of rhesus macaques via both intranasal and intratracheal routes with MuV-IA led to the typical clinical signs of mumps 2 weeks to 4 weeks postinfection. However, none of the infected macaques showed any fever or neurologic signs during the experimental period. Mumps viral antigen was detected in parotid glands by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Rhesus macaques represent the best animal model for the study of mumps virus pathogenesis.