Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) administration shifts the hepatic proteome and augments dietary outcomes related to hepatic steatosis in mice
TOXICOLOGY AND APPLIED PHARMACOLOGY
Authors: Marques, Emily; Pfohl, Marisa; Auclair, Adam; Jamwal, Rohitash; Barlock, Benjamin J.; Sammoura, Ferass M.; Goedken, Michael; Akhlaghi, Fatemeh; Slitt, Angela L.
Hepatic steatosis increases risk of fatty liver and cardiovascular disease. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) is a persistent, bio-accumulative pollutant that has been used in industrial and commercial applications. PFOS administration induces hepatic steatosis in rodents and increases lipogenic gene expression signatures in cultured hepatocytes. We hypothesized that PFOS treatment interferes with lipid loss when switching from a high fat diet (HFD) to a standard diet (SD), and augments HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Male C57BL/6 N mice were fed standard chow diet or 60% kCal high-fat diet (HFD) for 4 weeks to increase body weight. Then, some HFD mice were switched to SD and mice were further divided to diet only or diet containing 0.0003% PFOS, for six treatment groups: SD, HFD to SD (H-SD), HFD, SD + PFOS, H-SD + PFOS, or HFD + PFOS. After 10 weeks on study, blood and livers were collected. HFD for 14 weeks increased body weight and hepatic steatosis, whereas H-SD mice returned to SD measures. PFOS administration reduced body weight in mice fed a SD, but not H-SD or HFD. PFOS administration increased liver weight in H-SD + PFOS and HFD + PFOS mice. PFOS increased hepatic steatosis in H-SD and HFD groups. Hepatic mRNA expression and SWATH-MS proteomic analysis revealed that PFOS induced lipid and xenobiotic transporters, as well as metabolism pathways. Overall, the findings herein suggest that PFOS treatment did interfere with lipid loss associated with switch to a SD and similarly augmented hepatic lipid accumulation in mice established on an HFD.
SARS-CoV-2 infection: can ferroptosis be a potential treatment target for multiple organ involvement?
CELL DEATH DISCOVERY
Authors: Yang, Ming; Lai, Ching Lung
Since the outbreak of the new coronavirus in 2019 (SARS-CoV-2), many studies have been performed to better understand the basic mechanisms and clinical features of the disease. However, uncertainties of the underlying mechanisms of multiple organ involvement remain. A substantial proportion of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have lymphopenia, low serum iron levels, and multiple organ involvement. Several therapeutic agents have been used for different stages of the disease, but the treatment for severe disease is still suboptimal. Understanding the mechanism of programmed cell death in COVID-19 may lead to better therapeutic strategies for these patients. On the basis of observations of basic science studies and clinical researches on COVID-19, we hypothesize that ferroptosis, a novel programmed cell death, may be an important cause of multiple organ involvement in COVID-19 and it might serve as a new treatment target. In spite of the existing findings on the involvement of ferroptosis in SARS-CoV-2 infection, there is no reported study to uncover how does ferroptosis acts in SARS-CoV-2 infection yet. Uncovering the role of ferroptosis in SARS-CoV-2 infection is essential to develop new treatment strategies for COVID-19. Intracellular cell iron depletion or new generation of ferroptosis inhibitors might be potential drug candidates for COVID-19. We hope this hypothesis may launch a new wave of studies to uncover the association of ferroptosis and SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro and in vivo.