Hematologic and serum biochemical reference values in chemically immobilized free-ranging sambar (Rusa unicolor)
EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF WILDLIFE RESEARCH
Authors: Nigam, Parag; Talukdar, Animesh; Habib, Bilal; Pandav, Bivash; Malik, Pradeep K.; Kalyanasundaram, Sankar
Hematological and serum biochemical reference values for 33 free-ranging sambar deer following immobilization with medetomidine (70-100 mu gkg(-1)) and ketamine (1-2 mgkg(-1)) in Sariska Tiger Reserve in India were established and the differences across sex and age group were compared. Hematological and biochemical variables across different age-classes for red blood cell count, eosinophils, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, triglycerides, and blood glucose varied significantly though the hematological values did not vary between sexes. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels were significantly influenced by sex in the present study. Interpretation of the result, however, needs to be made with caution due to the low number of sub-adult compared to adults in the present study. The study highlights the need for understanding the source of individual variation for meaningful interpretation. This paper provides the first report of baseline hematologic and serum biochemistry values for free-ranging sambar deer that can form basis for assessing the state of health and nutritional condition of the animal.
Shenmai Injection Upregulates Heme Oxygenase-1 to Confer Protection Against Severe Acute Pancreatitis
JOURNAL OF SURGICAL RESEARCH
Authors: Zhang, Fei-hu; Liu, Yang; Dong, Xiao-bin; Hao, Hao; Fan, Kai-liang; Meng, Xian-qing; Kong, Li
Background: To explore the mechanism of Shenmai injection (SMI) on severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) through heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) signaling. Methods: A total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (220-260 g) were grouped into the following four categories (n = 10): SAP + SMI + Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), SAP + SMI, SAP, and sham surgery groups. ZnPP is a specific inhibitor of HO-1. Four percent of sodium taurocholate (1 mL/kg) was retrogradely injected via the pancreatic duct to induce the SAP model. The SAP group rats received 1.6 mL/kg saline by intravenous injection 30 min after the induction of SAP. The SAP + SMI group rats received 1.6 mL/kg SMI by intravenous injection 30 min after the induction of SAP. The SAP + SMI + ZnPP group rats received an intravenous injection of 1.6 mL/kg SMI and intraperitoneal administration of 30 mg/kg ZnPP 30 min after the SAP induction. Twenty-four hours after the SAP induction, blood samples were collected for the measurement of amylase, lipase, creatinine, myeloperoxidase, interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and HO-1 level, while tissue specimens were harvested for the determination of HO-1, TNF-alpha, and IL-10 mRNA level. Meanwhile, histopathological changes in organs (pancreas, lung, and kidney) were stored. Results: The serum concentration of amylase, lipase, creatinine, and myeloperoxidase was higher in the SAP group than in the SAP + SMI group. Treatment with SMI increased HO-1 and IL-10 level and reduced TNF-alpha level in serumand tissues compared to the SAP group (P<0.05). Treatment with SMI abolished the organ-damaging effects of SAP (P < 0.05). Furthermore, suppression of HO-1 expression by ZnPP canceled the aforementioned effects. Conclusions: SMI confers protection against the SAP-induced systemic inflammatory response and multiple organs damage via HO-1 upregulation. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.