Extracellular Cyclophilin A, Especially Acetylated, Causes Pulmonary Hypertension by Stimulating Endothelial Apoptosis, Redox Stress, and Inflammation
ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY
Authors: Xue, Chao; Sowden, Mark; Berk, Bradford C.
Objective-Oxidative stress and inflammation play key roles in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Cyclophilin A (CypA) is secreted in response to oxidative stress and promotes inflammation and cardiovascular disease. Endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction is an early event in the pathogenesis of PAH. We evaluated the role of extracellular CypA in PAH and compared the effects of acetylated CypA (AcK-CypA, increased by oxidative stress) and CypA on EC dysfunction. Approach and Results-In transgenic mice that express high levels of CypA in EC specifically, a PAH phenotype was observed at 3 months including increased right ventricular systolic pressure, a-smooth muscle actin expression in small arterioles, and CD45-positive cells in the lungs. Mechanistic analysis using cultured mouse pulmonary microvascular EC and human pulmonary microvascular EC showed that extracellular CypA and AcK-CypA stimulated EC inflammatory signals: increased VCAM1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1) and ICAM1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1), phosphorylation of p65, and degradation of IkB. Extracellular CypA and AcK-CypA increased EC apoptosis measured by TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling) staining, Apo-ONE assay, and caspase 3 cleavage. Oxidative stress stimulated CypA and AcK-CypA secretion, which further promoted EC oxidative stress. AcK-CypA, compared with CypA, stimulated greater increases in apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. MM284, a specific inhibitor of extracellular CypA, attenuated EC apoptosis induced by CypA and AcK-CypA. Conclusions-EC-derived CypA (especially AcK-CypA) causes PAH by a presumptive mechanism involving increased EC apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Our results suggest that inhibiting secreted extracellular CypA is a novel therapeutic approach for PAH.
Akhirin regulates the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells/progenitor cells at neurogenic niches in mouse brain
DEVELOPMENT GROWTH & DIFFERENTIATION
Authors: Anam, Mohammad Badrul; Ahmad, Shah Adil Ishtiyaq; Kudo, Mikiko; Istiaq, Arif; Felemban, Athary Abdulhaleem M.; Ito, Naofumi; Ohta, Kunimasa
Specialized microenvironment, or neurogenic niche, in embryonic and postnatal mouse brain plays critical roles during neurogenesis throughout adulthood. The subventricular zone (SVZ) and the dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus in the mouse brain are two major neurogenic niches where neurogenesis is directed by numerous regulatory factors. Now, we report Akhirin (AKH), a stem cell maintenance factor in mouse spinal cord, plays a pivotal regulatory role in the SVZ and in the DG. AKH showed specific distribution during development in embryonic and postnatal neurogenic niches. Loss of AKH led to abnormal development of the ventricular zone and the DG along with reduction of cellular proliferation in both regions. In AKH knockout mice (AKH(-/-)), quiescent neural stem cells (NSCs) increased, while proliferative NSCs or neural progenitor cells decreased at both neurogenic niches. In vitro NSC culture assay showed increased number of neurospheres and reduced neurogenesis in AKH(-/-). These results indicate that AKH, at the neurogenic niche, exerts dynamic regulatory role on NSC self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation during SVZ and hippocampal neurogenesis.