Strontium-incorporated mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds stimulating in vitro proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells and in vivo regeneration of osteoporotic bone defects
JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY B
Authors: Zhang, Yufeng; Wei, Lingfei; Chang, Jiang; Miron, Richard J.; Shi, Bin; Yi, Siqi; Wu, Chengtie
Osteoporosis is one of the most widely occurring bone disorders characterized by low bone mineral density and poor bone strength. Strontium ranelate, as a treatment option, has received significant attention in recent years due to its ability to halt the progress of osteoporosis by simultaneously improving bone formation and reducing bone resorption. Although much emphasis has been given to the treatment of osteoporosis and fracture prevention using pharmacological agents, much less attention has been placed on the repair of critical-sized bone fractures caused by osteoporosis. The aim of the present study was to prepare strontium-incorporated mesoporous bioactive glass (Sr-MBG) scaffolds in order to combine the therapeutic effects of Sr2+ ions on osteoporosis with the bioactivity of MBG to regenerate osteoporotic-related fractures. Prior to animal implantation, the effects of Sr-containing ionic products from Sr-MBG scaffolds on the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) from osteoporotic bone were investigated in an in vitro culture system. The results showed that Sr-MBG scaffolds significantly increased the proliferation of BMSCs in a concentration dependent manner and were able to stimulate the expression of osteoblast differentiation markers including Alpl, Col1a1, Runx2 and Bglap as assessed by real-time PCR. Critical sized femur defects in ovariectomised rats were created to simulate an osteoporotic phenotype. At time points 2, 4 and 8 weeks post-implantation, the in vivo osteogenetic efficiency was systematically evaluated by mu CT analysis, hematoxylin and eosin staining, and immunohistochemistry (type I collagen). The results showed that the incorporation of Sr into MBG scaffolds significantly stimulated new bone formation in osteoporotic bone defects when compared to MBG scaffolds alone. Furthermore, it was generally found that Sr release in blood was maintained at a very low level and the Sr, Si, Ca and P excretion by urine operated in an a similar manner to blank control animals. Our results suggested that Sr-MBG scaffolds could be a promising biomaterial for regenerating osteoporosis-related fractures by the release of Sr-containing ionic products.
CCN3 Protein Participates in Bone Regeneration as an Inhibitory Factor
JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY
Authors: Matsushita, Yuki; Sakamoto, Kei; Tamamura, Yoshihiro; Shibata, Yasuaki; Minamizato, Tokutaro; Kihara, Tasuku; Ito, Masako; Katsube, Ken-ichi; Hiraoka, Shuichi; Koseki, Haruhiko; Harada, Kiyoshi; Yamaguchi, Akira
CCN3, a member of the CCN protein family, inhibits osteoblast differentiation in vitro. However, the role of CCN3 in bone regeneration has not been well elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of CCN3 in bone regeneration. We identified the Ccn3 gene by microarray analysis as a highly expressed gene at the early phase of bone regeneration in a mouse bone regeneration model. We confirmed the up-regulation of Ccn3 at the early phase of bone regeneration by RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence analyses. Ccn3 transgenic mice, in which Ccn3 expression was driven by 2.3-kb Col1a1 promoter, showed osteopenia compared with wild-type mice, but Ccn3 knock-out mice showed no skeletal changes compared with wild-type mice. We analyzed the bone regeneration process in Ccn3 transgenic mice and Ccn3 knock-out mice by microcomputed tomography and histological analyses. Bone regeneration in Ccn3 knock-out mice was accelerated compared with that in wild-type mice. The mRNA expression levels of osteoblast-related genes (Runx2, Sp7, Col1a1, Alpl, and Bglap) in Ccn3 knock-out mice were up-regulated earlier than those in wildtype mice, as demonstrated by RT-PCR. Bone regeneration in Ccn3 transgenic mice showed no significant changes compared with that in wild-type mice. Phosphorylation of Smad1/5 was highly up-regulated at bone regeneration sites in Ccn3 KO mice compared with wild-type mice. These results indicate that CCN3 is up-regulated in the early phase of bone regeneration and acts as a negative regulator for bone regeneration. This study may contribute to the development of new strategies for bone regeneration therapy.