Characterization of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells with lymphoid tissue organizer cell potential in tonsils from children
EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY
Authors: Prados, Alejandro; Munoz-Fernandez, Raquel; Fernandez-Rubio, Pablo; Olivares, Enrique G.
Lymphoid tissue organizer (LTo) cells, identified in mouse and human embryos, are thought to be precursors of stromal cells in secondary lymphoid organs. Whether LTo cells are present in human adults, however remains unknown. We obtained 15 stromal cell lines from tonsils from children who underwent tonsillectomy, and studied the antigen phenotype of these tonsil stromal cell (TSC) lines by flow cytometry and RT-PCR. Cell lines met the minimal criteria proposed by the International Society for Cellular Therapy to define human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs): plastic-adherent capacity; expression of CD73, CD90 and CD105, lack of CD45, CD19 and HLA-DR; and capacity to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Furthermore, our TSC lines exhibited an antigen phenotype and functional characteristics very similar to those seen in murine embryo LTo cells: they expressed chemokines CCL19, CCL21 and CXCL13, cytokines TRANCE and IL-7, and adhesion molecules ICAM-1, mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule (MadCAM)-1 and VCAM-1. The expression of LTo cell-associated markers and functions were upregulated by lymphotoxin (LT)alpha 1 beta 2 and TNF, two cytokines involved in the development and maturation of secondary lymphoid tissues. Our results show that TSCs are tonsil MSCs that differentiate into LTo-like cells in response to the effects of these cytokines.
Insights into CCL21's roles in immunosurveillance and immunotherapy for gliomas
JOURNAL OF NEUROIMMUNOLOGY
Authors: Nguyen, Thien; Lagman, Carlito; Chung, Lawrance K.; Chen, Cheng Hao Jacky; Poon, Jessica; Ong, Vera; Voth, Brittany L.; Yang, Isaac
Chemokine (C-C) motif ligand 21 (CCL21) is involved in immunosurveillance and has recently garnered the attention of neuro-oncologists and neuroscientists. CCL21 contains an extended C-terminus, which increases binding to lymphatic glycosaminoglycans and provides a mechanism for cell trafficking by forming a stationary chemokine concentration gradient that allows cell migration via haptotaxis. CCL21 is expressed by endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier in physiologic and pathologic conditions. CCL21 has also been implicated in leukocyte extravasation into the central nervous system. In this review, we summarize the role of CCL21 in immunosurveillance and explore its potential as an immunotherapeutic agent for the treatment of gliomas. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.