Malaria-Ab ELISA Kit (DEIABL353)

Regulatory status: For research use only, not for use in diagnostic procedures.

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Size
96T
Sample
serum, plasma (citrate)
Species Reactivity
Human
Intended Use
The Malaria-Ab ELISA is intended for the qualitative determination of antibodies against Plasmodium in human serum or plasma (citrate).
Contents of Kit
Malaria Coated Wells: 1 x 12 x 8
Sample Diluent: 1 x100 ml
Stop Solution: 1 x15 ml
Washing Solution (20x conc.): 1 x50 ml
Malaria Conjugate: 1 x20 ml
TMB Substrate Solution: 1 x15 ml
Malaria Positive Control: 1 x2 ml
Malaria Cut-off Control: 1 x3 ml
Malaria Negative Control: 1 x2 ml
Storage
2-8°C
Precision

General Description
Malaria is a life-threatening disease which is caused by the protozoon Plasmodium spp. The transmission is mediated by the Anopheles mosquito, but can occur via blood transfusion also. Humans can be infected by four different species of Plasmodium: P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae. Infections with P. falicparum can be deadly. P. falciparum and P. vivax are the most common types. The disease occurs mainly in tropical and subtropical areas.
The Malaria infection induces the production of specific antibodies. In general they can be detected within some days after the occurrence of the parasites in the blood. The concentration of the specific antibodies is proportional to the intensity and duration of infection. The detection of antibodies is more sensitive than the direct detection of the pathogen and independent of the status of the infection. In humans who are infected for the first time the level of the specific antibodies decreases fast after recuperation. In contrast the antibody level decreases slowly (within 2 – 3 years) in re-infected persons who move into non-endemic areas.
The Malaria-Ab ELISA is a fast and sensitive enzyme immunoassay for the detection of specific IgG and IgM antibodies against Plasmodium spp.
The microplate is coated with recombinant antigens of P. falciparum and P. vivax. P. ovale and P. malaria are also detected due to the antigenic similarity between the different Plasmodium species.

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References


A 6.5-kb intergenic structural variation enhances P450-mediated resistance to pyrethroids in malaria vectors lowering bed net efficacy

MOLECULAR ECOLOGY

Authors: Mugenzi, Leon M. J.; Menze, Benjamin D.; Tchouakui, Magellan; Wondji, Murielle J.; Irving, Helen; Tchoupo, Micareme; Hearn, Jack; Weedall, Gareth D.; Riveron, Jacob M.; Cho-Ngwa, Fidelis; Wondji, Charles S.

Elucidating the complex evolutionary armory that mosquitoes deploy against insecticides is crucial to maintain the effectiveness of insecticide-based interventions. Here, we deciphered the role of a 6.5-kb structural variation (SV) in driving cytochrome P450-mediated pyrethroid resistance in the malaria vector,Anopheles funestus. Whole-genome pooled sequencing detected an intergenic 6.5-kb SV between duplicated CYP6P9a/b P450s in pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes through a translocation event. Promoter analysis revealed a 17.5-fold higher activity (p < .0001) for the SV- carrying fragment than the SV- free one. Quantitative real-time PCR expression profiling ofCYP6P9a/bfor each SV genotype supported its role as an enhancer because SV+/SV+ homozygote mosquitoes had a significantly greater expression for both genes than heterozygotes SV+/SV- (1.7- to 2-fold) and homozygotes SV-/SV- (4-to 5-fold). Designing a PCR assay revealed a strong association between this SV and pyrethroid resistance (SV+/SV+ vs. SV-/SV-; odds ratio [OR] = 2,079.4,p < .001). The 6.5-kb SV is present at high frequency in southern Africa (80%-100%) but absent in East/Central/West Africa. Experimental hut trials revealed that homozygote SV mosquitoes had a significantly greater chance to survive exposure to pyrethroid-treated nets (OR 27.7;p < .0001) and to blood feed than susceptible mosquitoes. Furthermore, mosquitoes homozygote-resistant at the three loci (SV+/CYP6P9a_R/CYP6P9b_R) exhibited a higher resistance level, leading to a far superior ability to survive exposure to nets than those homozygotes susceptible at the three loci, revealing a strong additive effect. This study highlights the important role of structural variations in the development of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors and their detrimental impact on the effectiveness of pyrethroid-based nets.

DFT and docking studies of designed conjugates of noscapines & repurposing drugs: promising inhibitors of main protease of SARS-CoV-2 and falcipan-2

JOURNAL OF BIOMOLECULAR STRUCTURE & DYNAMICS

Authors: Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Durgesh; Kumar, Ravinder; Singh, Prashant; Chandra, Ramesh; Kumari, Kamlesh

First case of the present epidemic, coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is reported in the Wuhan, a city of the China and all the countries throughout the world are being affected. COVID-19 is named by World Health Organization and it stands for coronavirus disease-19. As on 27(th) October, 2020, 73,776,588 people around the world are infected. It is also known as SARS-CoV-2 infection. Till date, there is no promising drug or vaccine available in market to cure from this lethal infection. As the literature reported that noscapine a promising candidate to cure from malaria as well reported to be cough suppressant and anti-cancerous. In our previous work, a derivative of noscapine has shown potential behavior against the main protease of novel coronavirus or SARS-CoV-2. Based on the previous study, hybrid molecules based on noscapine and repurposing (antiviral) drugs were designed to target the main protease of novel coronavirus and falcipan-2 using molecular docking. It is proposed that the designed hydrids or conjugates may have promising antiviral property i.e. against the main protease of novel coronavirus and falcipan-2. The designed molecules were thoroughly studied by DFT and different thermodynamic parameters were determined. Further, infrared and Raman spectra of the designed hybrid molecules were determined and studied. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma

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