The Efficacy and Safety of Opioids in Total Joint Arthroplasty: Systematic Review and Direct Meta-Analysis
JOURNAL OF ARTHROPLASTY
Authors: Hannon, Charles P.; Fillingham, Yale A.; Nam, Denis; Courtney, P. Maxwell; Curtin, Brian M.; Vigdorchik, Jonathan; Mullen, Kyle; Casambre, Francisco; Riley, Connor; Hamilton, William G.; Della Valle, Craig J.
Background: Opioids are frequently used to treat pain after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of opioids in primary TJA to support the combined clinical practice guidelines of the American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Hip Society, Knee Society, and the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Management. Methods: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of controlled trials were searched for studies published before November 2018 on opioids in TJA. All included studies underwent qualitative and quantitative homogeneity testing followed by a systematic review and direct comparison meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of opioids. Results: Preoperative opioid use leads to increased opioid consumption and complications after TJA along with a higher risk of chronic opioid use and inferior patient-reported outcomes. Scheduled opioids administered preemptively, intraoperatively, or postoperatively reduce the need for additional opioids for breakthrough pain. Prescribing fewer opioid pills after discharge is associated with equivalent functional outcomes and decreased opioid consumption. Tramadol reduces postoperative opioid consumption but increases the risk of postoperative nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, and dizziness. Conclusion: Moderate evidence supports the use of opioids in TJA to reduce postoperative pain and opioid consumption. Opioids should be used cautiously as they may increase the risk of complications, such as respiratory depression and sedation, especially if combined with other central nervous system depressants or used in the elderly. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Efficacy of Adductor Canal Block Combined With Additional Analgesic Methods for Postoperative Analgesia in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Prospective, Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Study
JOURNAL OF ARTHROPLASTY
Authors: Li, Donghai; Alqwbani, Mohammed; Wang, Qiuru; Liao, Ren; Yang, Jing; Kang, Pengde
Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of adductor canal block (ACB) combined with additional analgesic methods in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and investigate whether blocking the sensory nerves that are distributed in the posterior and lateral aspect of knee could improve postoperative pain control. Methods: Two hundred scheduled patients for TKA were randomly allocated into 4 groups: Group A received ACB combined with iPACK (interspace between the popliteal artery and capsule of the knee) block and lateral femoral cutaneous nerve block (LFCNB); Group B received ACB combined with iPACK block; Group C received ACB combined with LFCNB; and Group D received ACB only. Postoperative pain score was the main primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included the morphine consumption and analgesic duration. Other outcomes included knee range of motion, quadriceps strength, ambulation, Knee Society Score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index physical function, timed up and go (TUG) test, and complications. Results: Groups A, B, and C had lower postoperative pain scores within 12 hours at rest and 8 hours with activity than Group D (P < .05). In addition, Group A had lower morphine consumption than both Group C (P < .05) and Group D (P < .01). Group A had the longest analgesic duration (19.21 +/- 3.22 hours) among all groups. There were no significant differences among the groups in terms of mobility and complication after surgery. Conclusion: Combining ACB with both iPACK and LFCNB is an effective method for decreasing early postoperative pain in TKA without increasing the complications or affecting the early rehabilitation. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.